L’agriculture urbaine et périurbaine à Yaoundé : analyse multifonctionnelle d’une activité montante en économie de survie/Urban and peri-urban agriculture in Yaounde, Cameroon: multifunctional analysis of rising activities in survival economies
As in most African cities, Yaounde, the capital city of Cameroon, is faced with the phenomenon of urbanization. This leads to socio-economic problems especially in food supply and acquisition of basic necessities. The extremely low purchasing power, unemployment, underemployment, poverty - say misery, brought a significant proportion of the population to invent new solutions to ensure basic income through urban and peri-urban agriculture. The characterization of this agricultural system highlights the interaction between various stakeholders, types of spaces and crops, productivity and average revenue generated. Results show that this agricultural system has generated employment for about 2000 people, mainly youths and especially women, with 35 years average age. The activity is based mainly in lowland floody zones, low slope, landscaping roads with increase land pressure. Vegetables, gardening and flowers are dominant diversified crops noticed in the area. These crops vary from urban, peri-urban and rural areas, three landscape which were studied.
The analysis of the marketing chain show three main types of distribution chains through which products pass from producers to consumers. These include long distribution, short distribution and direct channel. In these channels, the regulation of the market is achieved at the level of all stakeholders. This means that the prices of the products are therefore fixed in advance, and also are functions of demand. Regarding profitability, the analysis on the farmer’s accounts of Celery, Bitter leaf and Black nightshade indicates that this agriculture is profitable with an average daily gain of almost 3 euro per producers. That's why some gardeners believes that instead of a salary of almost 75 euro per month, they prefer to stay in their farm.
However, no legal and regulatory framework related to this activity is available in the case of Yaounde. Also, there are many other constraints related to the organization of producers, practices, structuring and implementation of products in the markets. These results have important implications to the understanding of the interaction between farmers and policy makers. The multiple functions of this activity such as youth employment, income for substantial segments of the most vulnerable populations, urban waste management and the beautification of the landscape is as much attraction that contribute to its promotion.
A strategy to encourage the implication of urban producers in the development of the city of Yaounde has been implemented through CAUPA. The integration of these strategies in urban planners, could help for the challenges of improving people’s welfare. Subsequently, this thesis brings forth the need for a mediation between different stakeholders and contributes to good quality of peri-urban agriculture. The results can therefore enable decision-makers and policy to provide useful information on the importance of this form of agriculture which is not only rising, but also controversial.
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Advisor:Joiris Véronique; Lejoly Jean; Visser Marjolein; Guedje Marie Nicole; Parrot Laurent; Jacobs Paul; Baudoin Jean Pierre; Fleury André; Tchouamo Isaac roger
School:Université libre de Bruxelles
Source Type:Master's Thesis
Date of Publication:12/16/2008