study of thermal degradation of the guta percha(1,4-trans-polyisoprene)and guta-percha cones used in root canal filling
Gutta-percha cones are the most widely used material for root canal filling. They are composed of gutta-percha rubber (trans 1,4-polyisoprene), ZnO, BaSO4 and wax or resins. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC), Infrared spectroscopy (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), atomic absorption spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis were used in the characterization of purified gutta-percha polymer and in the study of the in vitro and in vivo aging. The in vitro thermal degradation of purified gutta-percha polymer was monitored by IR spectroscopy. The increase of bands due to hydroxyl(OH; 3430-3440 cm-1) and carbonyl groups (C=O; 1720-1730 cm-1) were detected, probably due to products of degradation such as alcohols, carboxylic acid, hydroperoxide, aldehyde, ketone, ether or ester. A decrease on the band at 840 cm-1 due to =C-H was also detected. The effect of some components of cones (ZnO, BaSO4 and wax) in the in vitro thermal oxidation of gutta-percha polymer was carried out by IR spectroscopy through the evolution of hydroxyl band, carbonyl band and the decrease of =C-H band, assumed as related to the cleavage of isoprene double bond. The induction time (ti) and the apparent rate constants during early step of degradation were determined. The ti values for gutta-percha polymer was smaller than the observed for natural rubber (cis-isomer). Addition of ZnO to the gutta-percha anticipated the beginning of film degradation, while the addition of BaSO4 delayed it. Wax addition did not change the nduction time. The in vivo aging process of gutta-percha cones was monitored by GPC after the extraction of remaining cones during the retreatment followed by the polymer isolation. The molar mass of polyisoprene decreased with time, but in a slow rate. In tooth with caries and periodontal fection, the decrease in molar mass was higher than in healthy root canal. IR analysis of the in vivo aged gutta-percha showed the production of carbonyl and hydroxyl groups indicating that the process is oxidative. 1H-NMR analysis confirmed the formation of hydroperoxide during in vivo aging. It was also observed that the ZnO content in the cones decreases with increasing of aging time, due the contact with tissue fluids. Experiment with non aged cones in contact with artificial saliva and water also showed the decrease of cone mass with time due to the release of ZnO.Eight brands of gutta-percha cones available in Brazil were also characterized. The average composition was similar to other brands investigated. Differential scanning calorimetric study showed that gutta-percha polymer possess two crystalline phases (a and b). The changes in crystalline phase occur during thermal heating.
Advisor:Luiz Gonzaga de França Lopes; Regina Célia Monteiro de Paula; alexandre augusto zaia; Regina Célia Reis Nunes; Judith Pessoa de Andrade Feitosa
School:Universidade Federal do Ceará
Source Type:Master's Thesis
Keywords:termoanalise cones infra-red rays thermoanalysis
Date of Publication:09/04/2007