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The influence of commercial capabilities and orientations in new technology ventures

by Graaff, Joost Adriaan, MS

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Appendix A: Cross-loadings of items

Table 6 Cross-loadings of items

Business performance Commercial capabilities Competitor orientation Pro-active customer orient Pro-active sales orient Shared Interpretation

BP1 0,8446 0,3310 0,4426 0,1586 0,0274 0,1236
BP2 0,9179 0,1972 0,3915 0,1930 0,1989 0,1774
BP3 0,8734 0,1693 0,4058 0,1268 0,1904 0,1388
MC1 0,2963 0,8954 0,3153 0,1331 0,2798 0,2244
MC2 0,2164 0,8501 0,3309 0,2015 0,4203 0,2582
SC1 0,1674 0,8347 0,0112 -0,0770 0,2505 0,1460
SC2 0,1793 0,8267 0,1451 -0,0318 0,0929 0,1277
CoO1 0,2292 0,2673 0,7075 0,2502 0,0654 0,2631
CoO3_r 0,3633 0,1754 0,7599 0,1332 0,2065 0,1798
CoO4 0,4330 0,1900 0,8167 0,2534 0,2520 0,3497
CuO2 0,1598 0,1353 0,3078 0,8225 0,3044 0,4279
CuO3_r 0,1293 -0,0681 0,0002 0,6558 0,0276 0,1587
CuO5 0,0448 0,1877 0,3763 0,5954 0,3383 0,5571
SO1 0,1600 0,3130 0,0986 0,2236 0,8650 0,1929
SO3 0,1144 0,2318 0,2413 0,2460 0,8182 0,3321
SO4 0,1228 0,2462 0,3406 0,2447 0,8700 0,3246
ShI1 0,0463 0,1280 0,0700 0,2021 0,0635 0,4841
ShI3 0,1709 0,2505 0,3173 0,4022 0,3066 0,9088
ShI4 0,1281 0,1324 0,3308 0,4348 0,2828 0,8405


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Appendix B: Survey questions

Table 7 Overview survey questions

Construct Items Output
Background questions
Year of birth What is your year of birth? [Year]
Entrepreneurial experience Did you have any previous entrepreneurial experience? 1= Yes, 2= No
Product or service Does your company involve in a product, service or both? 1 = Product, 2 = Service, 3 = Both, service and product
Sector In which sector is the developed technology positioned? [Sector]
Incubator Was the innovation supported by an incubator? 1= Yes, 2= No
Market type What type of market does the innovation serve? 1 = Business-to-business, 2 = Business-to-consumer, 3 = Both
Position What is your position in the organization? [Position]
Pro-active Customer orientation In our organization, we…..
CuO1 Continuously tried to discover additional needs of our customers of which they were unaware. Completely disagree - completely agree (1…5)
CuO2 Frequently brainstormed on how customers will use our technology. Completely disagree - completely agree (1…5)
CuO3 Incorporated solutions to unarticulated customer requirements. Completely disagree - completely agree (1…5)
CuO4 Identified key market trends to gain insights into what users require in the future. Completely disagree - completely agree (1…5)
CuO5 Looked for clues beyond the requirements expressed by customers to identify their requirement drivers. Completely disagree - completely agree (1…5)
Competitor orientation In our organization, we…
CoO1 Exactly knew who are competitors were Completely disagree - completely agree (1…5)
CoO2 Monitored new developments of our competitors. Completely disagree - completely agree (1…5)
CoO3 Did not know what attracted customers to competitors. Completely disagree - completely agree (1…5)
CoO4 Knew if our competitors' customers were satisfied. Completely disagree - completely agree (1…5)
Shared Interpretation In our organization, we….
ShI1 Jointly developed a shared understanding of the available market information. Completely disagree - completely agree (1…5)
ShI2 Formally met to discuss information regarding markets, customers and competitors. Completely disagree - completely agree (1…5)
ShI3 Jointly developed a shared understanding of the implications of market developments. Completely disagree - completely agree (1…5)
ShI4 Frequently met informally and discussed information regarding markets, customers and competitors. Completely disagree - completely agree (1…5)
Pro-active sales orientation In our organization we put in a lot of time and energy into…
SO1 Actual sales work of products/services to the potential customers. Completely disagree - completely agree (1…5)
SO2 The development of sales arguments for the product/service. Completely disagree - completely agree (1…5)
SO3 Experimenting with selling tactics with the potential customers. Completely disagree - completely agree (1…5)
SO4 Creating and identifying sales opportunities in the market. Completely disagree - completely agree (1…5)
Commercial Capabilities In our organization, myself or one or more of my colleagues had...
MC1 Work experience in advertising and promotion. Completely disagree - completely agree (1…5)
MC2 Experience in dividing the market into customer segments. Completely disagree - completely agree (1…5)
MC3 Academic studies in marketing. Completely disagree - completely agree (1…5)
SC1 Work experience in selling at the customer interface. Completely disagree - completely agree (1…5)
SC2 Experience in managing sales team/function. Completely disagree - completely agree (1…5)
SC3 Academic studies in selling. Completely disagree - completely agree (1…5)
Business Performance

How did the organization perform, relative to…
Return on investment objectives?
Sales and customer growth objectives?
Market share objectives?
Innovation reputation objectives?
Planned value creation objectives?

Much lower than the objectives -
Much higher than the objectives (1…5)
Much lower than the objectives -
Much higher than the objectives (1…5)
Much lower than the objectives -
Much higher than the objectives (1…5)
Much lower than the objectives -
Much higher than the objectives (1…5)
Much lower than the objectives -
Much higher than the objectives (1…5)
Technology push
TP1 Technological possibilities provided the driving force for the development of the project Completely disagree - completely agree (1…5)
TP2 Our product was driven by new technology opportunities. Completely disagree - completely agree (1…5)
TP3 Our product-technology combination was really new for the market. Completely disagree - completely agree (1…5)


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Appendix C: Comparison present study and study Witte (2012)

Table 8 Comparison present study and study Witte (2012)
Present study Study of Witte (2012)
Sample size 68 33
Theoretical basis

Core variables

- Commercial capabilities in view of RBT
- Market orientation
- Customer involvement and development
- Sales orientation
- Commercial capabilities founding team
- Customer orientation
- Competitor orientation
- Sales orientation
- Shared interpretation
- Level of technology push

- Commercial capabilities in view of RBT
- Market orientation
- Sales orientation

- Commercial capabilities founding team
- Market orientation
- Sales orientation

Analysis of separate
components MO and SO
Moderators in model

Method of data analysis



Moderators on Commercial capabilities founding
- Customer orientation
- Competitor orientation
- Sales orientation
Moderators on Customer, Competitor and Sales
- Shared Interpretation
- Level of Technology push
Partial Least Squares (Structural Equation
Significant effects on business performance:
- Commercial capabilities founding team (+)
- Competitor orientation (+)
Significant moderation effects on business
- Commercial capabilities X Customer orientation (-)
- Commercial capabilities X Competitor orientation
- Customer orientation X Shared interpretation (-)
- Sales orientation X Shared interpretation (-)
- Competitor orientation X Technology push (+)


Moderators on Commercial capabilities
founding team:
- Market orientation
- Sales orientation

Multiple regression

Significant effects on business
- Commercial capabilities founding team (+)
- Technology maturity (-)
- Technology push (+)
No significant moderation effects


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