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A solicitação do meio e a construção das estruturas operatorias em crianças com dificuldades de qprendizagem

by Zaia, Lia Leme

Abstract (Summary)
This research was developed at PRODECAD (A Development and Integrated Program for Children and Teen - Agers - UNlCAMP). We have studied eight subjects; children aged between 11 and 13 years old. These children were attending regular classes at elementary school, from 2nd. to 4th grades. However, when they had to change classes, they have presented some difficult to leam. Though these children have organized the reality in a proper way, they were not able to structure their performance regarding to space, time and relationship between cause and effect. They only could represent the present situation through images. Having difficult to evoke the past, most of their speech was restricted to the present and, although some of their goals were well succeeded, they have not been aware of their actions and have not always been able to reproduce in an oral way the ordering in which they were been executed. When the Piaget operating tests were applied, a delay in the construction of the cognizable structure was noticed, since they have showed process peculiar by preoperative suject or to the concrete operating leveI, during the pretest application. In order to provide the cognizable development as well as to structure the reality, we have adjusted the Environment Request Process to the children possibilities needs and concems. Basing on the principIes arising out of the Piaget clinic method, we have intended to enlarge their possibilities in leaming and solving problems, providing in this way, the development of self-confidence and self-respect, as well as the manifestation of the relationship whether by reciprocity or by mutual respect in the interactions among the classmates during the process. We have attempted to create challenging situations regarding to the children actions and thoughts selecting activities and games which could provoke the need to act over the objects, the think before acting, to meditate about this own actions and to interact with other children. Whenever possible, the activities were presented in a form of playing games and the record of the results was stimulated to start from the children own needs. We had provided, this way, the construction of the physical and logicalleaming, as well as the representation and the structure of time, space and relationship between cause and effect notions. We have created some situations in which the children ought to evoke past actions, in order to bring them to the present, where they would be able to structure them within a relationship neto The objective has been to make possible for the children to become aware of what has been done; to structure a concept and to express themselves orally. In this way, the child would overcome the present and concrete communication, and would reach another way of communication which nuolves the difference between significant and meaning, going from the real world to the possible one. We have still encouraged some discussions about how their feelings were not respected in some situations and how they would like to be treated by their classmates. Next, they were able to discuss and to elect some rules from the socialliving together. During the first sections it was necessary to remind them about the rules; but, later on, they have begun to observe them. The children's cognizable and social development has been followed during the whole process, as well the positive self-image construction and their reflection over the school learning processo The relationship regarding to the institution, the teachers and the PRODECAD and classmates became more even, and an interaction among the class-group was created, by learning to respect the others and being respected by the others. At the end of the school year, all our subjects were promoted at regular school Résumé: La présente enquête a été déveIoIoppée au PRODECAD (Programme d'Intégration et DeveIoppement de I'Enfant et de l' AdoIescent) pro-rectoraI de I'extension de I'UNICAMP. Nos sujets, huit enfants de onze à treize ans qui fréquentaient des salles de 2eme à 4eme séries dans l' écoIe réguliere, dans l' autre période, présentaient des difficuItés d' apprendre. Quoique ces enfants eussent organisé convenabIement Ie réeI, elles n' ont pas structuré ses représentations par rapport à l' espace au temps et à Ia causalité. Elles représentaient à peine Ia situation actuelle á travers des images. A vec difficuIté pour evoquer Ie passé, grande partie de son discours restait Iimitée au présent. Quoique eussent obtenu de suces en queIques de ses objectifs, ils n'ont pas pris de conscience de ses actions et, principaIement, n'ont obtenaient pas toujours réproduire oraIement l'ordre qui avaient été exécutées. Ayant été appliquées Ies épreveus opératoires piagetiénnes on a découvert un retard dans Ia construction de ses structures cognitives, une fois qu'ils présentes procédures propres du sujet pré-opératoire ou du début de Ia transition au période opératoire concret. Pour rendre propicie au déveIoppement cognitif et Ia structuration du réeI, nous adaptons Ie: "Procés de Solicitacion du Moyen" aux possibilités, aux nécessités et aux intérêts des enfants. Baseant aux cours des principes du méthode cIinique de Piaget nous avons prétendu amplier ses possibilités pour apprendre et résoudre des probIemes, en favorisant Ie déveIoppement de l' auto-confiance et de l' auto-estime et, aussi, l' apparition des reIations pour réciprocité et respect mutueI aux interactions entre Ies camarades durant Ie proces. On a recherché créer des situations affrontées de l' action et de Ia pensée des enfants en séIectionant des activités et des jeux qui provoquent Ia nécessité dágir sur Ies objects, de penser avant d'agir, retléchir sur ses mêmes actions et interagir avec d'autres enfants. Aussi possibIe Ies activités ont été présentées sur Ia forme de jeux et Ie régistre des résuItats a été instigué à partir de Ia nécessité des mêmes enfants. Ou offrait, de cete maniere, de Ia construction de connaissances phisiques et Iogique mathématiques, Ia construction de Ia représentation, Ia structuration des notions de temps, d' espace et de causalité. On été crées des situacions oér les enfants devaiente évoquer des actions passées, a fin de les appontés au présent d' ou on pourraient les structurer dans le réseau de relations. L' objeticf était possibiliter Ia prise de conscience de cela qui avait été réalizé, condition pour opérer, construire un concept et s' exprimer oralement. De cette façon, I' enfant vaincra Ia communication ou il s'implique Ia distinction entre signifiant et signifié, en passant du monde réel au possible. On été instinguées des discussions sur ses sentiments aux situations qui n' avaient pas respectées et sur Ia forme comme ils aimeraient d' être traitées vers les colIegues. Apres, ils ont eu I' opportunité de contester et choisir des regles pour Ia familiarité sociale. Aux premieres sessions il a falIu de les rappeler souvent aux regles; plus tard, sont passés à surveiller son exécution. 11 a été possible suivre le développement cognitif et social des enfants tout du long du proces, quand même Ia constuction d 'une auto-image, positive et ses repercutions sur l'apprentissage solaire. Les relations avec institution, avec les professeurs et les colIegues du PRODECAD se sont devenues plus equilibrées, passant à respecter les autres et être respectés pour eux, s'integrant meilleur au groupe-classe. À Ia fin lánnée tous nos éleves onte été réussis dans l'école reguliére
This document abstract is also available in Portuguese.
Bibliographical Information:

Advisor:Orly Z. Mantovani de Assis; Orly Zucatto Mantovani de Assis [Orientador]

School:Universidade Estadual de Campinas

School Location:Brazil

Source Type:Master's Thesis

Keywords:psicologia genetica psicopedagogia desenvolvimento cognitivo construtivismo educação jogos educativos

ISBN:

Date of Publication:12/19/1996

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