Über die Regulation endothelialer Funktionen durch reaktive Sauerstoff- und Stickstoffderivate und ihre Bedeutung für die Sepsis
The definition of sepsis includes clinical signs which all are related to endothelial dysfunctions. Infections agents can primarily target endothelial cells. The regulation of vascular permeability and coagulation, the interaction with circulating cells, vasoregulation and oxygen consumption are endothelial dependent. Systematically it is described how reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species act as mediators for these diverse functions. Both reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are well known for their toxic potencies leading to oncosis. Their interaction is very complex. Nitric oxide induced toxic reactions increase in the presence of reactive oxygen species, whereas reactive oxygen species induced toxicity is decreased by low doses of nitric oxide. Apoptosis as opposed to oncosis hardly is induced by exogeneous reactive oxygen or nitrogen species in endothelial cells. However, endogeneous production of reactive oxygen species is more likely to serve proapoptotic functions. Whether patients suffering from sepsis show increased signs of apoptotic endothelium is discussed. Signalling events by low doses of exogeneous reactive oxygen and nitrogen species as well as by endogeneous production in endothelial cells unrelated to death signals are summarized. The known signalling pathways are integrated into specific dysregulated endothelial functions of septic patients. Early interactions of endothelium with infectious agents involve reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Clinically apparent early signs of septic shock include increased vascular permeability and vasoregulatory disturbance. The involvement of endothelium and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in these functions is summarized. New data have become available showing that endothelium is able to regulate whole organ oxygen consumption in which reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are involved. These data are discussed. From these in vitro and animal studies it seems evident that endothelial dysfunctions are central features of sepsis. However it remains to be clearly shown that definite endothelial dysfunctions are present and measurable in well defined patient groups, how long these suggested dysfunctions are present or change along the course of septic episodes. The involvement of dysregulated production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species is most likely.
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School:Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
Source Type:Master's Thesis
reactive oxygen species
Date of Publication:06/22/2001