Economías de aglomeración y externalidades del capital humano en las áreas metropolitanas de México
The investigation empirically demonstrates that the urban economies in Mexico, when exist, are internal to the firms and not external to them within the geographic space where located. The urban productive system of Mexico is then failing to take advantage of the generation of territorial externalities facilitated by the spatial concentration of the economic activity, which in other countries explain an important part of the aggregate productivity. In general, these external effects are generated because of its limited geographic space, the cities can operate as incubators or facilitators of input sharing, labor market pooling and knowledge spillovers processes.
The main regional and urban policy derived from these results is to foster the within and between industry relations and productive chains in the Mexican urban territory. Apparently, scale economies within and among industries are limited because of the lack of a systemic competitive territorial context, which inhibits the cooperation and complementarities among firms and the implementation of just-in-time productive processes in the territory. A good part of these results are explained because of the maquiladora (in-bond) industry, established mainly in the northern frontier of Mexico, does not generate relevant localization economies, as an important part of the inputs, parts and accessories used in the production are imported to be assembled in Mexico.
For that particular industry, the recommendation is to generate an integral competitive territorial context capable to substitute the international suppliers of these inputs and standardized parts by national producers. Among other factors, it is necessary to foster and facilitate the processes of management learning, and to increase and improve regional infrastructure and territorial capitals (in a wide sense, that is not only physical, but also human, technological and, importantly, institutional), in order to attract and locate firms producing these inputs.
The investigation also provides evidence that shows that the aggregate effect of human capital is relevant, having an important local component. Most important, it appears that a relevant part of the effect of aggregate human capital in the Mexican cities is attributable to an education external effect. The fact that social return to education would differ from the private return has, on practice, fundamental policy implications. As it is known, the argument of subsidizing education is based on the recognition that education benefits not only the person who has it, but also it generates a wide variety of positive effects shared by the society. The result suggests the design and implementation of a communal system of financing education, where part of it would come from local taxes.
Likewise, and very important, the local education policy should be considered into an integral package of actions that promote the attraction of human capital intensive industries; only under that context would be possible that the production of qualified workers in a locality would translate into an increase of the stock of qualified workers there. If there is not a strong association between the formation and use of college education at the local level, regional governments would invest lower levels in education than the optimal.
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Advisor:Roig Sabaté, José Luis
School:Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona
Source Type:Master's Thesis
Keywords:411 departament d economia aplicada
Date of Publication:04/21/2008