Hábitos alimentarios de los lactantes españoles y chilenos
ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Introduction of complementary feeding shows important differences depending on several factors, such as geographical area, training of health professionals responsible of baby follow-up or even socio-economic level of the family. The aim of the present study is to know present characteristics of food diversification in Spanish infants, studying breastfeeding duration, age of introduction of some of the more representatives elements of complementary feeding and influence of the different geographical and cultural areas on food introduction during the first year of life, as well as to compare the weaning of Spanish infants with those of another country with socio-demographic as it is Chile. Methods: 927 retrospective surveys to mothers of Spanish children (aged between 1-4 years) and 416 to Chilean mothers with the same characteristics were carried out, asking about: 1)Socio-demographic data, 2) Information about breastfeeding and infant formula introduction, 3)Information about age of introduction of several foods in infants diet, specially of gluten-containing food and cow milk. Statistical Analysis: Normality test (Shapiro-Wilk), Chi2, Wilconson test and Spearman Rho A significance level of 95% was considered. Results: Mean duration of exclusive breastfeeding in Spanish infants is 2,5+/-2,1 months and mean duration of total breastfeeding 3,8+/-4,0 months. In Chilean infants these values were 4,4+/-2,2 months and 10,9+/-7,3 months, respectively. Mean age of complementary feeding introduction is 4,4+/-1,3 months in Spanish infants and 5,0+/-1,7 months in the Chilean ones. In Spain, cereals are the first type of food introduced in Spanish infants diet, followed by fruits or cereals and fruits simultaneously. Mean age of gluten free cereals introduction is 4,8+/-1,4 months and gluten containing cereals are introduced at 7,5+/-1,8 months. In Chilean infants, weaning diversification presents more variety and introduction of vegetal and animal origin food at the same time in infant diet is usual. In this population, there are not statistical differences between the age of introduction of gluten-free and gluten containing-cereals in infant diet. Mean age of cow milk introduction is Spanish infants is 14,6+/-4,4 months. 65% of the sample introduced growth (junior) milks in their feeding before consuming cow milk. Cow milk introduction in Chilean infants takes place at 8,3+/-4,7 months and more than 90% take junior milks before its introduction. Statistically significant differences have been found between the different Spanish geographical areas in age in complementary feeding start and in age on gluten and cow milk introduction. Conclusions: 1) A low percentage of Spanish and Chilean infants follow WHO recommendations about exclusive breastfeeding duration, 2) Complementary feeding introduction, as well as the introduction of the different food analysed, follow recommendations established by health authorities in each of the studied countries, 3) It is necessary to insist to infants care responsible about the importance of delaying gluten and cow milk introduction in their diet.
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Advisor:López Sabater, María del Carmen; Campoy Folgoso, Cristina; Miranda León, María Teresa
School:Universitat de Barcelona
Source Type:Master's Thesis
Keywords:nutrició i bromatologia
Date of Publication:05/04/2005