Water Transmission Line Leak Detection using Extended Kalman Filtering
A model-based estimation process is implemented in simulation of a water transmission line for the purpose of leak detection. The objective of this thesis is aimed at determining, through simulation results, the effectiveness of the Extended Kalman Filter for leak detection.
Water distribution systems often contain large amounts of unknown losses. The range in magnitude of losses varies from 10 to over 50 percent of the total volume of water pumped. The result is a loss of product, including water and the chemicals used to treat it, environmental damage, demand shortfalls, increased energy usage and unneeded pump capacity expansions. It is clear that more control efforts need to be implemented on these systems to reduce losses and increase energy efficiencies. The problems of demand shortfalls, resulting from lost product, are worsened by the limited availability of water resources and a growing population and economy. The repair of leakage zones as they occur is not a simple problem since the vast majority of leaks, not considered to be major faults, go undetected.
The leak detection process described in the work of this thesis is model based. A transient model of a transmission line is developed using the Method of Characteristics. This method provides the most accurate results of all finite-difference solutions to the two partial differential equations of continuity and momentum that describe pipe flow. Simulations are run with leakage within the system and small transients are added as random perturbations in the upstream reservoir head. The head measurements at the two pipe extremes are used as inputs into the filter estimation process.
The Extended Kalman Filter is used for state estimation of leakage within the transmission line. The filter model places two artificial leakage states within the system. The estimates of these fictitious leakage states are then used to locate the actual position and magnitude of leakage within the transmission line. This method is capable of locating one leak within the line.
The results of the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) process show that it is capable of locating the position and magnitude of small leaks within the line. It was concluded that the EKF could be used for leak detection, but field tests need to be done to better quantify the ability of these methods. It is recommended that a multiple filtering method be implemented that may be able to locate the occurrence of multiple leakage.
Advisor:Zhang, W. J. (Chris); Sumner, David; Putz, Gordon; Habibi, Saeid R.; Burton, Richard T.
School:University of Saskatchewan
School Location:Canada - Saskatchewan
Source Type:Master's Thesis
Keywords:water distribution kalman filter leak detection pipelines
Date of Publication:04/04/2005