Untersuchungen zur Entwicklung neuroprotektiver Strategien bei operativer Behandlung angeborener Herzfehler
The aim of our clinical and experimental studies was to evaluate functional and structural changes in the brain during corrective cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) in order to develop neuroprotective strategies. Using the available neurmonitoring methods such as the transcranial Doppler and near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) characteristic changes in cerebral perfusion and oxygenation were defined and described according to the changes in hemodynamic parameters such perfusion pressure, temperature and flow rate. The diagnostic value of the astrocytic cell protein S100B was evaluated by measurement of the serum concentrations in infants and children with and without neurological complications. Additionally, the normal and abnormal release patterns were evaluated in experimental setting using an animal model of CPB and DHCA. According to the neuropathological assessment of the brain initial morphological changes were found predominantly in the astroglial cells. Systemic hypothermic perfusion on CPB before the induction of circulatory arrest period of 60 minutes was significantly protective. Ischemic neuronal injury in form of cell nekrosis was found in different brain region particularly after the prolongation of circulatory arrest time in deep hypothermia. The apoptotic cell death was found predominantly in the hippocampal region of the dentate gyrus. The routinely prophylactic systemic use steroid during cardiac surgery is not protective against ischemia and has been found to induce apoptosis in the hippocampus. In the same model the systemic pre-treatment with single high dose of Cyclosporin and FK506 decreased significantly the ischemic neuronal cell injury in different brain region. However, before clinical use further studies are necessary to optimise the dose and mode of application.
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School:Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
Source Type:Master's Thesis
Keywords:Protein S100B Hirnprotektion Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) S100 brain protection
Date of Publication:10/01/2002