Understanding and improving the residual efficacy of the cryptophlebia leucotreta granulovirus (Cryptogran)
Abstract (Summary)False codling moth (FCM), Thaumatotibia (=Cryptophlebia) leucotreta (Meyr) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is one of the most important pests on citrus. The Cryptophlebia leucotreta granulovirus (CrleGV) has been developed into a successful biological control agent, registered under the name Cryptogran, and is currently the preferred product for the control of FCM on citrus in South Africa. A prerequisite to the continued success of Cryptogran as a means of controlling false codling moth is to understand the factors affecting field persistence of the virus, and to find ways to improve it. The aim of this study was to gain a clearer understanding of the product and the abiotic and biotic factors affecting its persistence in the field, and to investigate methods to improve this persistence. The effect of UV-irradiation on the virus was determined, and various products were tested as UV protectants in laboratory bioassays. Lignin was the most effective additive, and was tested in several field trials, where it also enhanced the efficacy of Cryptogran. Laboratory trials indicated that Cryptogran is rainfast. Cryptogran applications early in the season had a longer period of residual activity than sprays applied closer to harvest. Daytime applications were less effective that evening sprays. Sprays applied coinciding with peaks in pheromone moth trap catches were more effective than those applied between peaks. Biotic factors influencing persistence were investigated. Residual efficacy was longer when treatments were applied to blocks than as single tree treatments. Attempts were made to quantify the effect of the navel end of a navel orange on the field persistence of Cryptogran. Cryptogran was shown to be compatible with many agricultural chemicals used on citrus. Economic thresholds and various cost-benefit analyses are discussed. A list of practical recommendations to growers was drawn up, and possibilities for future research are presented.
School Location:South Africa
Source Type:Master's Thesis
Date of Publication:01/01/2008