Ultrasonic characterization of materials and multiphase flows
Abstract (Summary)This thesis deals with three different applications of ultrasound measurement technology. In process industries like the mining industry, the oil and gas industry, and the paper pulp industry, multiphase flows play an important role. It is of interest to measure several different parameters of these flows, such as the mass fractions and the mass fraction velocities of the different phases. There are currently no single technique available that can measure all of these properties, and commercial multiphase flow meters are in practice a combination of several flow meters that each measure different parameters. The long-term goal of the project presented in this thesis is to develop an ultrasonic technique that can measure all of these properties. The first focus of the work presented in this thesis has been to develop an ultrasonic method that can measure the mass fraction of particles in a solid/liquid multiphase flow. The technique is based on a sensor array that measures an entire cross section of the flow. The use of an array makes it possible to measure the particle distribution. This can then be used to detect static installation effects, thus enabling the use of single point sensor. The sensor array used is clamped on to the outside of the flow pipe which means the technique is completely non-invasive. The second focus is on imaging of opaque flows. While traditional optical techniques such as LDV, etc. does not work for opaque media, there is no such restriction on the ultrasonic method. The imaging technique, called ultrasonic speckle correlation velocimetry (USV) has been applied to image vortices in flows, and to measure particle velocity profiles in multiphase flows. The third and last contribution is in the field of non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of materials. In a biomaterial engineering project, the goal has been to develop an injectable bone cement that can be used to repair or replace fractured bone. During the setting reaction, the cement undergoes a series of phase changes, which have implications on how the cement can be used. The research is motivated by the lack of satisfying standards to measure the setting time. The existing methods are based on mechanical testing and visual examination, which makes them time-consuming and subjective. The ultrasonic technique presented in this thesis provides a non-destructive and objective way to determine both the setting time and some mechanical properties of the cement, during the entire setting process. The thesis consists of an introductory part and a collection of seven papers.
School:Luleå tekniska universitet
Source Type:Doctoral Dissertation
Date of Publication:01/01/2002