Towards a theory of the configuration and management of export-dependent land-based value systems: The case of New Zealand
Land-based industries provide the majority of New Zealand's export earnings. The scale of production in the larger industries accounting for this trade creates significant dependency on export markets. The performance of these industries in the international location, therefore, has a marked influence on the country's prosperity.
The process of taking land-based products from pasture to plate encompasses a value system. A value system (depicted as the Z-form Model, overleaf) includes all sequentially aligned organisations through which product flows from the producer to the international consumer. Value systems also include the linkages between adjoining and non-adjoining organisations. The objective of the study was to develop a theory of the configuration and management of export-dependent land-based value systems, supported by case study material drawn from select New Zealand industries.
The Z-form Model constituted a framework from which both relevant contributions and shortcomings in the literature were identified. A conjoint approach to theory building, encompassing both theoretical and empirical contributions, was developed. Empirical evidence was then gathered through multiple case studies of the meat and pipfruit industries to augment theory building. Particular attention was paid to empirical processes relating to the generation of wealth and its subsequent distribution. Phenomena observed through case research were reduced into concepts, and the relationships between concepts identified. Concepts and relationships were then presented as an emergent theory in the form of a causal network. Some of the perspectives and behaviours of value systems were supported by the literature, however, many considerations were found to be unique.
A theory of the configuration and management of New Zealand's export-dependent value systems is presented. The theory encompasses empirically based value system strategies that serve to enhance wealth generation and wealth distribution. Normative value systems, based on the Z-form Model, that return wealth to organisations in the home-base location are provided. Further opportunities for wealth creation and repatriation are identified.