Towards green chemistry: alternative solvents for catalysed carbonylation reactions

by Gimenez Pedrós, Marta

Abstract (Summary)
Summary The main objective of this thesis was to study the use of alternative and non-toxic solvents, water and supercritical carbon dioxide, for catalysed hydroformylation and copolymerisation reactions. Rhodium catalysed hydroformylation of 1-octene and 1-decene in biphasic aqueous systems using sulfonated diphosphines (dpppts, dppbts) as ligands was studied in Chapter 3. In order to increase the solubility of the alkenes in water different strategies such as addition of surfactants, co-solvents and a dendrimeric molecule have been studied. The addition of an anionic surfactant to both systems increases the conversion but the selectivity in aldehydes decreases obtaining mainly isomers as reaction products. The addition of a cationic surfactant to the system increases both activity and selectivity in aldehydes. However, high concentrations of cationic surfactants led to loss of catalyst in the organic phase. When 1-octene was used as substrate a slight increase in regioselectivity in nonanal was observed. Using 1-decene and dppbts a ligand high selectivity in aldehydes up to 97% with 63% of conversion were obtained, in addition the system could be recycled maintaining both conversion and selectivity in aldehydes. The addition of methanol as a co-solvent increases the conversion of the reaction, when dppbts was used as a ligand an enhancement in aldehydes selectivity was observed. The use of dendrimer did not improve the results. In Chapter 4 was studied the hydroformylation of 1-octene in supercritical carbon dioxide. In order to obtain soluble catalyst in supercritical carbon dioxide new ligands containing alkyl chains, PPh3-n(OC9H19)n (n = 1, 2, 3), were synthesised. The coordination of these ligands to rhodium and palladium, the activity of these ligands in hydroformylation of 1-octene in toluene as a solvent and the reactivity of them with CO/H2 were also discussed. Although the ligands were not soluble in scCO2, good activities can be obtained using the appropriate reaction conditions, similar conversion and aldehydes selectivity than the obtained using toluene as a solvent where obtained using P(OC9H19)3 as a ligand. Using PPh(OC9H19)2 and PPh2(OC9H19) as ligands in supercritical carbon dioxide low conversion were observed. However improved selectivities in aldehydes were obtained. Chapter 5 deals with the use of perfluorinated ligands in order to solubilize the catalyst in supercritical carbon dioxide. A perfluorinated phosphine previously applied to biphasic fluorous hydroformylation was used to study the catalyzed rhodium hydroformylation of 1-octene, 1-decene and styrene in scCO2. The solubility studies showed that the catalytic system was soluble in supercritical carbon dioxide. Good activities and selectivities in aldehydes using 1-octene as a substrate were observed at very low rhodium concentrations and P:Rh ratios. In Chapter 6 was studied the copolymerisation of 4-tert-butylstirene with CO in supercritical carbon dioxide. To achieve this objective we propose the synthesis of N-donor ligands containing perfluorinated chains. The neutral palladium complexes [PdCl(CH3)(Bipyf o Phenf)] and cationic palladium complexes [Pd(CH3)(NCCH3)(Bipyf o Phenf)]BARF were synthesised. The cationic complexes showed high solubility in supercritical carbon dioxide. These complexes were used as catalysts in the palladium catalysed copolymerisation of 4-tert-butylstirene with CO using scCO2 and dichloromethane as solvents. The results obtained showed that the catalytic system has similar activities in both solvents. However, using carbon dioxide as a solvent the molecular weights are higher than the obtained in dichloromethane in the same reaction conditions. Moreover the polyketones obtained in scCO2 have very narrow molecular weight distribution.
This document abstract is also available in Catalan.
Bibliographical Information:

Advisor:Masdeu i Bultó, Ana M.

School:Universitat Rovira i Virgili

School Location:Spain

Source Type:Master's Thesis

Keywords:departament de química física i inorgànica


Date of Publication:11/11/2005

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