Thrombin inhibitors grafting on polyester membranes for the preparation of blood-compatible materials
The design of biomaterials, historically initiated and developed by physicians and engineers, in the last decades has slowly shifted toward a more biochemical based approach. For the replacement, repair and regeneration of tissues scientists are now focusing on materials that stimulate specific biological response at the molecular level. These biomaterials have already shown interesting applications in cell proliferation, differentiation, and extracellular matrix production and organization when the material modifications are designed to elicit specific interactions with cell integrins. In the present work we propose the application of this strategy for the development of blood-compatible materials. We first identified, in the coagulation cascade a key enzyme that constitute a valuable biological target for the development of anti-thrombogenic compounds. Piperazinyl-amide derivatives of N-alfa-(3-trifluoromethyl-benzenesulfonyl)-L-arginine were synthesized as graftable thrombin inhibitors. These inhibitors provided a spacer arm for surface grafting and a fluorine tag for XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) detection. The possible disturbance of biological activity due to a variable spacer-arm fixed on the N-4 piperazinyl position was evaluated in vitro against human alfa-thrombin, in silico by molecular modelling and via X-ray diffraction study. Selected inhibitors, having inhibition potency in the mM range, were grafted on polyesters surface via wet chemistry and photochemical activation treatments. Wet chemistry surface grafting was performed by specific hydroxyl chain-ends activation and resulted in bioactive molecules fixation of 20-300pmol/cm2. The photochemical grafting was performed using a molecular clip providing an aromatic azide, for nitrene insertion into a polymer, and an activated ester for grafting of tag compounds. This grafting technique resulted in a dramatic increase in fixed bioactive signals (up to nmol/cm2). The material blood-compatibilization induced by the surface fixation of the inhibitors, was measured by a static blood clot weight measurement test. The wet chemistry grafting technique resulted in moderate blood-compatibilization while by the photochemical grafting method important decrease in surface blood clot formation was observed. In the latter case, the blood response to material contact was found to be strongly affected by the polyester surface photo-degradation induced by the activation treatment.
School:Université catholique de Louvain
Source Type:Master's Thesis
Keywords:photochemical grafting nitrene insertion polyesters photodegradation lsc pet x ray photoelectron spectroscopy xps surface wet chemistry pbt hemocompatibility thrombin inhibitors synthesis blood compatibility biomaterials liquid scintillation counting
Date of Publication:11/28/2005