Thermal Etching of Single Crystal Quartz and Willemite: Effects of Boron Oxide, Defects, Lattice Anisotropy and Capillary Force
This thesis is about thermal etching of quartz single crystals with boron oxide melt and thermal etchings on inorganic polymeric single crystals of orthosilicates, willemite (Zn2SiO4) and phenakite (Be2SiO4), where isolated [SiO4] groups are polymerized by corner-sharing with other tetrahedral groups, such as [ZnO4] and [BeO4]. On the thermal etching of quartz, experiments were performed on quartz (10 0), (0001), (10 1) and (11 1) from 500¢J to 700¢J. Three types of etch figures were recognized by scanning electron microscopy: isolated dislocation etch pit, aligned etch pits and flat etch pits. The effects of defect specification and £\-£] displacive phase transformation of quartz on its development of thermal etch figures were evaluated. By doing so, boron oxide melt was proved to be a useful etchant on the studies of defect types and dynamics of quartz. As for the thermal etching of phenakite type silicate, we conducted thermal-cycle etching of willemite at 1250¢J, hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acid etchings of willemite and phenakite at room temperature, and boron oxide melt etching of willemite and phenakite at 700¢J. Surface premelting, anisotropic lattice etching and defect etching were found to play important roles on the thermal etching of willemite. Impurity segregation at dislocation outcrops on willemite (0001) should occur in the first thermal cycling in order to nucleate hillocks at the centers of the hexagonal dislocation etch pits. Reflection IR spectroscopic analysis indicated the surface premelt has the same structural units as willemite, although the subsequent crystallization follows a silica rich path. A silica-rich surface coverage impedes the etching of crystal plane underneath. There is significant polygonization and cleaving-healing of willemite single crystal upon thermal cycling according to transmission electron microscopy observation. Phenakite has remarkable chemical and thermal etching resistance in comparison to its isostructure willemite due to site energy difference of Be and Zn in coordination number 4.
Advisor:K.-C Hsieh; C.-C. Lin; D. Gan; J.-L. Hong; A.-C. Su; P. Shen
School:National Sun Yat-Sen University
School Location:China - Taiwan
Source Type:Master's Thesis
Keywords:willemite quartz phenakite thermal etch
Date of Publication:08/03/2000