Theoretical modeling of x-ray and vibrational spectroscopies applied to liquid water and surface adsorbates
This thesis presents results of theoretical modeling of x-ray and vibrational spectroscopies applied to liquid water and to CO adsorbed on a Ni(100) surface. The Reverse Monte Carlo method is used to search for water structures that reproduce diffraction, IR/Raman and x-ray absorption by fitting them to experimental data and imposed constraints. Some of the structures are created to have a large fraction of broken hydrogen bonds because recent x-ray absorption and emission studies have been seen to support the existence of such structures. In the fitting procedure a fast way of computing the IR/Raman spectrum for an isolated OH stretch is used, where the frequency is represented by the electric field projected in the direction of the stretch coordinate. This method is critically evaluated by comparing it to quantum chemical cluster calculations. Furthermore, the x-ray emission spectrum of water is investigated, the modeling of which is complicated by the necessity of including vibrational effects in the spectrum calculations due to a dissociative intermediate state. Based on the Kramers-Heisenberg formula a new semi-classical method is developed to include vibrational effects in x-ray emission calculations. The method is seen to work very well for a one-dimensional test system. Moreover, x-ray absorption and emission are implemented in a periodic Density Functional Theory code which is applied to ice and to the surface adsorbate system CO on Ni(100).
Source Type:Doctoral Dissertation
Keywords:NATURAL SCIENCES; Physics; Atomic and molecular physics; Chemical physics; water; XAS; XES; IR; Raman; Chemical Physics; kemisk fysik
Date of Publication:01/01/2010