Synthesis of triprenylated toluquinone and toluhydroquinone metabolites from a marine-derived Penicillium fungus
The synthesis of the two ortho-prenylated toluhydroquinone analogues 5-methyl-2-[(2'E,6'E)-3',7' -dimethyl-2',6'-octadienyl]-1,4-benzenediol (19) and 5-methyl-2-[(2'E,6'E)-3',7',11'-trimethyl-2',6',10'-dodecatrienyl]-1,4-benzenediol (21) and their two ortho-prenylated toluquinone analogues, 5-methyl-2-[(2'E,6'E)-3',7'-dimethyl-2',6'-octadienyl]-2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-dione (20) and 5-methyl-2-[(2'E,6'E)-3',7',11'-trimethyl-2',6',10'-dodecatrienyl]-2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-dione (22) is described. Our initial attempts to couple geranyl bromide, farnesyl bromide and farnesal to the aromatic precursors m-cresol and 1,4-dimethoxy-2-methylbenzene using directed ortho-prenylation and phenoxide carbon-alkylation were unsuccessful. The four target analogues were eventually synthesized via the initial metal halogen exchange reaction between 1-bromo-2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylbenzene and geranyl bromide/farnesyl bromide using n-BuLi and TMEDA in ditheyl ether at 0 °C to yield 92 and 104 respectively in moderate yield. The demethylation of both compounds preceded smoothly using AgO giving the target analogues 20 and 22 in good yield (approx. 90 %). The reduction of quinones 20 and 22 with sodium dithionite gave 19 and 21 in quantitative yield. The synthesis reported here is the first regioselective synthesis of these compounds. The anti-oesophageal cancer activity of 19-22 and two commercially available non-prenylated analogues 17 and 18 were tested against WHCO1. The conclusion drawn from the anti-oesophageal cancer study was that the polyprenyl side-chain plays a negligable role in the cytotoxicity of compounds such as 11 and 9 against the oesophageal cancer cell line WHCO1.
School Location:South Africa
Source Type:Master's Thesis
Date of Publication:01/01/2007