Synthesis, properties and applications of chalcogen-containing antioxidants
In the first part, the preparation and properties of chalcogen-containing vitamin E analogues are described. The sulfur compound 3,3,4,6,7-pentamethyl-2,3-dihydrobenzo[b]thiophene-5-ol was prepared by two different routes using ionic and radical chemistry. Interesting rearrangements were observed in the two synthetic pathways. A new methodology for the synthesis of dihydroselenophene and dihydrotellurophene derivatives is described. In the preparation of the vitamin E analogues 2,3-dihydrobenzo[b]selenophene-5-ol and 2,3-dihydrobenzo[b]tellurophene-5-ol a tellurium-mediated tandem SRN1/SHi sequence was suggested to be operative. 2,3-Dihydrobenzo[b]thiophene-5-ol and the vitamin E-like selenide 2-methyl-2-(4,8,12-trimethyl-tridecyl)-selenochroman-6-ol were prepared via intramolecular homolytic substitution at sulfur and selenium, respectively. The first rate constant for intramolecular homolytic substitution at tellurium is also reported (5x108 s-1 at 25 °C). The antioxidant profile for 2,3-dihydrobenzo[b]furan-5-ol and its 1-thio, 1-seleno, and 1-telluro analogues is described. By means of pulse radiolysis, it was shown that the one-electron reduction potentials (ArO·/ArO-) were independent of the chalcogen (0.49-0.52 V vs NHE). The O-H bond dissociation enthalpies for the compounds were also estimated to be similar (336-340 kJ mol-1). The pKa values and the oxidation potentials were also determined for these compounds. For some compounds the rate of hydrogen atom donation to tert-butoxyl radicals was determined by means of laser flash photolysis. Using a two-phase lipid peroxidation model, it was demonstrated that the selenium and tellurium analogues could be regenerated in the presence of a stoichiometric amount of a reducing agent. The organotellurium analogue also acted as a good glutathione-peroxidase mimic and as a potent inhibitor of lipid peroxidation in liver microsomes. In the second part of the thesis the stabilizing capacity of bis[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]telluride was investigated in the thermoplastic elastomer PACREL®. It was demonstrated that the addition of 0.17-0.50 % of the telluride significantly improved the tensile strength and elongation at break of the polymer. Chemiluminescence measurements showed that the organotellurium compound prolonged the induction period of thermo-oxidation and reduced the total luminescence intensity of the material.
Source Type:Doctoral Dissertation
Keywords:NATURAL SCIENCES; Chemistry; Chemistry; Kemi; organisk kemi; Organic Chemistry
Date of Publication:01/01/2000