Supersymmetric Dark Matter : aspects of sfermion coannihilations
There is very strong evidence that ordinary matter in the Universe is outweighed by almost ten times as much so-called dark matter. Dark matter does neither emit nor absorb light and we do not know what it is. One of the theoretically favoured candidates is a so-called neutralino from the supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model of particle physics.A theoretical calculation of the expected cosmic neutralino density must include the so-called coannihilations. Coannihilations are particle processes in the early Universe with any two supersymmetric particles in the initial state and any two Standard Model particles in the final state. In this thesis we discuss the importance of these processes for the calculation of the relic density. We will go through some details in the calculation of coannihilations with one or two so-called sfermions in the initial state. This includes a discussion of Feynman diagrams with clashing arrows, a calculation of colour factors and a discussion of ghosts in non-Abelian field theory. Supersymmetric models contain a large number of free parameters on which the masses and couplings depend. The requirement, that the predicted density of cosmic neutralinos must agree with the density observed for the unknown dark matter, will constrain the parameters. Other constraints come from experiments which are not related to cosmology. For instance, the supersymmetric loop contribution to the rare b -> s? decay should agree with the measured branching fraction. The principles of the calculation of the rare decay are discussed in this thesis. Also on-going and planned searches for cosmic neutralinos can constrain the parameters. In one of the accompanying papers in the thesis we compare the detection prospects for several current and future searches for neutralino dark matter.
Source Type:Doctoral Dissertation
Keywords:NATURAL SCIENCES; Physics; Supersymmetry; Dark Matter
Date of Publication:01/01/2004