A Study of the Three Poets in The Hai-Wai-Chi Society
The Hai-Wai-Chi Society, an overseas organization derived from the ¡§Chi Society¡¨ based in Shanghai, was initiated and founded by Hsu Fu-Yuan, one of the six poets of the Chi Society. Towards the end of the Hung Kung reign of the late Ming dynasty, in the wake of the defeat of the Sungchiang uprising staged by the society, Hsu continued to work for the recovery of the Ming legacy against the ruling Qing regime. At first, he left Shanghai to follow Emperor Lungwu in Fujian. After Emperor Lungwu was defeated, he proceeded to Choushan to follow King Lu and cooperated with Chang Huang-Yen. Later on, after Choushan was seized by the Qing army, Hsu accompanied King Lu under the shelter of Koxinga in Xiamen. It was at this point that the society came to its apex. When Koxinga took hold of Taiwan following his defeat at Nanjing battle, the society members began to enter the island along with the soldiers. Therefore, the literature of Hai-Wai-Chi Society is viewed as the beginning of Han Taiwanese literature.
Taiwan Shih Cheng by Lien Heng refers to Hsu Fu-Yuan, Chang Huang-Yen, Lu Jo-Teng, Sheng Chuan-Chi, Chao Tsung-Lung, Chen Shih-Ching as ¡§The Six Poets of Hai-Wai-Chi Society.¡¨ This paper, entitled A Study of Three Poets in the Hai-Wai-Chi Society, is intended to follow the same way of thinking in its exploration of Hsu Fu-Yuan, Chang Huang-Yen, and Lu Jo-Teng through the existing anthology of the society. Meanwhile, the relevant literature concerning the other three poets will be reviewed for necessary references. The Hai-Wai-Chi Society is characterized by its composition of core members, mainly loyalists to King Lu, who followed Koxinga to Taiwan as a consequence of the fall of Choushan. Mourning over the end of the Ming empire, intellectuals of high morality and talent assembled to form a society of poetry to express their emotions toward the fatherland. The members of the Hai-Wai-Chi Society were actively involved in the fight against the Qing court. In spite of successive defeats, they would live and die in exile overseas rather than surrender as subjects of the Qing regime.
The Introduction aims to explain the motivation of this study, the meaning and formation of The Hai-Wai-Chi Society, with a literature review of the three poets. The first chapter explores the public opinions of The Dong-Lin Party¡]ªFªLÄÒ¡^ and the Restoration Society¡]´_ªÀ¡^ in the Late Ming period, and the poetry of patriotism by Chen Tzu-Lung and Hsia Wang-Chun of The Hai-Wai-Chi Society, to be defined in this study as two typical kinds of heritage of The Hai-Wai-Chi Society. The second chapter gives an analysis of the historical background of South Ming royalists fighting against the Qing regime and the formation and development of The Hai-Wai-Chi Society. The third chapter is focused on the Tiao-Huang-Tang Manuscript by Hsu Fu-Yuan to study his overseas poems that express his uncompromising anti-Qing mentality and noble patriotic integrity. The fourth chapter represents the social reality of war-ridden Kinmen during the Koxinga period based on Niao-Yi Poetry and Liu-An Anthology by Lu Jo-Teng. The fifth chapter deals with Chi-Ling Grass, Ping-Tsa Collection, and Tsai-Wei Recitation by Chang Huang-Yen to distinguish him as a great noble Ming loyalist who had fought against the Qing power for 19 years overseas. The Conclusion sums up the poetry by the three poets as: (1) a reflection of history with a national concern, (2) an expression of opposition against invasion with a firm anti-Qing determination, and (3) a kind of oceanic literature with a universal sympathy.
Advisor:none; none; none; none; none
School:National Sun Yat-Sen University
School Location:China - Taiwan
Source Type:Master's Thesis
Keywords:the hai wai chi society chang huang yen taiwanese literature lu jo teng hsu fu yuan
Date of Publication:09/06/2007