Studies of Autoantibodies in Systemic and Organ-Specific Autoimmune Disease
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is the prototypic systemic autoimmune disease, whereas autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS1) is a rare autosomal disorder characterized by combinations of organ-specific autoimmune manifestations including hypoparathyroidism and intestinal dysfunction, and may serve as a model for organ-specific autoimmunity. Autoantibodies directed against proteins expressed in the affected tissues are found in both diseases. From a chondrocyte cDNA expression library, we identified the protein AHNAK as an autoantigen in SLE. Anti-AHNAK antibodies were found in 29.5% (18/61) of patients with SLE, 4.6% (5/109) of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and 1.2% (2/172) of blood donors. Using a candidate approach, we analyzed the prevalence in APS1 and other organ-specific autoimmune diseases, of autoantibodies against the pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzymes histidine decarboxylase (HDC) and cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase (CSAD), which are structurally closely related to known autoantigens. Anti-HDC and anti-CSAD reactivity was detected exclusively in APS1 patient sera. Anti-HDC antibodies were detected in 37.1% (36/97) of the APS1 sera, did not cross-react with aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, and were associated with intestinal dysfunction and loss of histamine-producing gastric enterochromaffin-like cells. In contrast, anti-CSAD reactivity was detected in 3.6% (3/83) of APS1 sera and cross-reacted with recombinant glutamic acid decarboxylase. From a parathyroid cDNA expression library, novel spliced transcripts of the CLLD4 gene on human chromosome 13q14, encoding 26 and 31 kDa isoforms recognized by autoantibodies in 3.4% (3/87) of APS1 patients, were identified and found to be preferentially expressed in lung and ovary. Both isoforms contain an N-terminal BTB/POZ domain, similarly to the TNF-alpha-regulated protein B12, localize both to the cytoplasm and nucleus in transfected COS cells, and form oligomers in vitro. The CLLD4 gene is located in a region frequently deleted in several forms of cancer, including lung and ovarian tumors. In conclusion, we have identified and partially characterized AHNAK and HDC as two common targets of autoantibodies in SLE and APS1, respectively. We have also identified CSAD and CLLD4 as two minor autoantigens in APS1, one of which is a novel protein with unknown function.
Source Type:Doctoral Dissertation
Keywords:MEDICINE; Dermatology and venerology,clinical genetics, internal medicine; Medicine; autoantibodies; autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1; cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase; histidine decarboxylase; systemic lupus erythematosus; ahnak; CLLD4; Medicin; Molekylär medicin; Molecular Medicine
Date of Publication:01/01/2003