Structure and functions of heparan sulfate/heparin – Importance of glucuronyl C5-epimerase and heparanase
Heparan sulfate (HS) and heparin are linear polysaccharide chains covalently O-linked to serine residues within the core proteins, so called HS proteoglycans (PGs) or heparin PG. HSPGs are produced by almost all mammalian cells and known to play important roles in developmental processes, physiological and pathological conditions; whereas heparin PG is produced by mast cells and best known as an anticoagulant in clinic.Biosynthesis of HS/heparin occurs in Golgi compartment and involves many enzymes, one of which is glucuronyl C5-epimerase (Hsepi) that catalyzes the conversion of D-glucuronic acid (GlcA) to L-iduronic acid (IdoA). Heparanase is an enzyme involved in metabolism of HS; it cleaves the linkage between GlcA and glucosamine residues in HS/heparin chains. Heparanase is expressed essentially by all cells and found up-regulated in many metastatic tumors.This thesis focuses on the structure and functions of HS/heparin through studies on the implications of Hsepi and heparanase. My study demonstrated that the modification catalyzed by Hsepi is critical for HS-dependent function of growth factors, especially FGF2; heparanase is involved in regulation of HS biosynthesis and matrix metalloproteinases expression; moreover, my experimental data demonstrated the functions of heparin in mast cells, showing cleavage of heparin by heparanase contributes to modulation of protease storage in mast cells.
Source Type:Doctoral Dissertation
Keywords:MEDICINE; Chemistry; Biochemistry; Biochemistry; biokemi
Date of Publication:01/01/2009