Structure function studies on lectin nucleotide phosphohydrolases (LNPs)
Lectin nucleotide phosphohydrolases (LNPs) are proteins which possess both apyrase catalytic activity (E.C. 188.8.131.52) and specific carbohydrate binding properties, and these are linked. To investigate the structural and functional properties for these proteins, two putative soluble plant LNPs, 4WC and 7WC (from white clover), and a putative soluble plant apyrase 6RG (from ryegrass) were chosen.
Rabbit polyclonal antibodies for each plant apyrase were generated using highly purified, overexpressed recombinant 4WC or 7WC. In the case of 6RG, the C-terminal half of the protein constituted the best antigen for generating polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies showed high specificity and sensitivity.
Active, recombinant 4WC and 6RG were overexpressed and purified using the baculoviral insect cell expression system (4WCbac-sup and 6RG:Hisbac), while 7WC (7WCcoli) was produced from E. coli inclusion bodies and subsequently refolded to give active enzyme. In course of overexpression, recombinant 4WC was localised in both the cellular fraction (4WCbac) and in the media supernatant (4WCbac-sup), while recombinant 6RG:Hisbac was only found in the cellular fraction (6RG:Hisbac) indicating that it was not secreted during insect cell growth. Secretion of 4WCbac was found to be dependent on N-glycosylation at N313 but not at N85 and elimination of one or both of these sites appeared to have little influence on apyrase activity. In addition, both 4WCbac and 6RG:Hisbac from the cellular fraction were fully functional. These results were compared with similar work performed on the animal ecto-apyrases which have different specific N-glycosylation sites required for secretion and activity.
The 4WCbac-sup, 7WCcoli and 6RG:Hisbac proteins all showed apyrase activity, that is they catalysed the hydrolysis of nucleotide tri- and/or di-phosphates to their corresponding nucleotide monophosphates, and released inorganic phosphate in a divalent cation-dependent manner. However, the proteins exhibited different activities, substrate specificities, pH profiles and influence of inhibitors: 4WCbac-sup had a preference for NDPs with a pH optimum ?9.5; 7WCcoli had a modest preference for NTPs with a pH optimum at 8.5; 6RG:Hisbac was almost exclusively an NTPase with a pH optimum at 6.5. Contrary to predictions based on phylogeny the proteins all bound to sulphated disaccharides and their catalytic activities were influenced both positively and negatively by the binding of specific chitosans. The data indicates that all three soluble plant apyrases investigated here were LNPs, in contrast to predictions from the literature.
In order to pinpoint the regions responsible for determining substrate specificity and chitosan binding, chimeras were made using the N- and C-terminal halves of 4WC and 6RG. This resulted in fully functional reciprocal chimeras. Comparison of the apyrase activity for parents and chimeras, substrate specificity, optimal pH, influence of inhibitors on activity and effects of chitosans indicated that the C-terminus was responsible for determining substrate specificity. However, the influence of specific chitosans on the chimeras appeared to be dependent on both the N- and C-terminal portions of the proteins. In addition, chimeras were found to bind to the same sulphated disaccharides as the parent proteins.
Preliminary crystal screening experiments were performed with highly purified preparations of 7WCcoli and 6RG:Hisbac. Under specific conditions 7WCcoli was found to form cube-like crystalline arrangements while 6RG:Hisbac formed hexagonal-like crystalline structures.
A potential model for carbohydrate binding by LNPs is proposed and the possible biological roles of plant LNPs are discussed.
Advisor:Dr Vickery Arcus; Dr Nick Roberts
School:The University of Auckland / Te Whare Wananga o Tamaki Makaurau
School Location:New Zealand
Source Type:Master's Thesis
Keywords:apyrase lectin prokaryotic and eukaryotic protein expression chimeras glycosylation fields of research 270000 biological sciences 270100 biochemistry cell biology 270108 enzymes
Date of Publication:01/01/2008