Stabilization of Linseed Oil for use in Aquaculture Feeds
An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of addition of antioxidants or encapsulation of linseed oil on the oxidative stability of linseed oil and the effect on growth and fatty acid composition of rainbow trout fed these products. Four diets differing only in their lipid sources were prepared by cold extrusion: 1) fish oil (FO), 2) linseed oil (LO), 3) linseed oil (980 g/kg) stabilized with vitamin E (7.5 g/kg) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) (12.5 g/kg) (stabilized linseed oil; SLO) and 4) linseed oil (350 g/kg) containing vitamin E (7.5 g/kg), BHT (12.5 g/kg) and encapsulated in a coating material primarily consisting of hydrogenated palm oil (630 g/kg) (encapsulated linseed oil; ELO). Diets were fed twice daily to rainbow trout to apparent satiation (n=22 / replicate; 7 replicates per treatment) during a 168 day growth trial. Following the growth trial, the fish were humanely euthanized by a sharp blow to the cranium and analyzed for fatty acid composition, thiobarbituraric reactive substances (TBARS), fillet colour and sensory attributes (trained and consumer panels). There were no significant differences between treatments on any of the growth parameters investigated or TBARS levels of fish fillets. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids of trout fed LO were significantly higher than those fed FO (35.5% of total fatty acids vs. 27.6%) and ELO (28.9%) (P < 0.05). EPA and DHA levels were not significantly different between treatments. Diet samples were stored for 168 days at room temperature in sealed plastic containers. Following storage, the oxidative stability index (OSI) of the FO and LO diets were reduced to 0.00 hours while that of the SLO diet 9.20 hours and the ELO diet was 11.40 hours. Trained panelists determined fish fed FO had a significantly higher aroma intensity and significantly lower aroma desirability and overall acceptability than those fed SLO. The rancid aroma and flavour of the FO-fed fish was significantly higher than fish fed the other treatments (P < 0.05). Consumer panelists found no significant differences between the sensory attributes of fish fed the four experimental diets and exhibited no preference between treatments (P > 0.05). Fillets from fish fed FO had significantly higher values than the other three treatments for redness (3.59 vs values between 1.86 and 2.07) and yellowness (25.35 vs values between 20.51 and 21.22) (P < 0.05). Addition of antioxidants to linseed oil improves its oxidative stability during storage and processing and results in fish fillets with fatty acid composition and consumer acceptance equal or superior to fish fed fish oil.
Advisor:McKinnon John J.; Drew, Murray D.; Laarveld, Bernard; Buchanan, Fiona C.; Shand, Phyllis J.
School:University of Saskatchewan
School Location:Canada - Saskatchewan
Source Type:Master's Thesis
Keywords:rainbow trout aquaculture feed linseed oil butylated hydroxytoluene encapsulation vitamin e
Date of Publication:12/10/2008