Spotpriset på El : Kan dess förändringar förklaras av funda-mentala faktorer?
This thesis examines which factors that drive changes in the electricity spot price on the Nordic energy exchange Nord Pool. The intention with this thesis is to support Lunds Energikoncernen AB to create a pricing model. The factors were determined though a pre-study in which important literature on the electricity market were studied and inter-views with Lunds Energikoncernen AB. The examined factors in this thesis are; the price of emission allowances, net export to Germany, temperature, precipitation, the prices of coal and burning oil and Sweden’s business cycle.The factor study was a multiple regression analysis with the above factors as independ-ent variables and the spot price of electricity on Nord Pool as the dependent. The fac-tors were divided in two groups, the day group and the month group, the two groups were decided due to statistical observations. The factors from the former group had daily ob-served data and the latter monthly data. The month group included net exchange with Germany, oil and coal prices and the business cycle which are measured in GDP. In the month group only the net exchange with Germany had statistical significance and was used in further studies.In the day group the factors that are mostly discussed in the literature to impact on the electricity price namely, temperature, precipitation, and the price of emission allowances. As it, some what unexpected, turned out the precipitation did not have a statistical affect on the electricity price. The authors chose to carry out another analysis with precipita-tion from another area, neither this result had statistical significance. However, both the temperature and the price of emission allowances did have a statistical significant effect on the electricity price, the result were verified through one more round of analysis.After the two initial analyses, a regression analysis with the three factors that had statis-tical significance and the electricity price were used in a final analysis. The factors in-cluded in this regression were net exchange with Germany, temperature and the price of emission allowances. This, somewhat, simple forecasting model explained as much as 70 percent of the changes in the electricity spot price.At last the forecasting model were discussed by the authors who identified two major weaknesses, first the model may not explain sudden changes in the electricity price, and second the model has to be re-calibrated when the next trading period for emission al-lowances starts in early 2008. However the analysis did indicate that it might be possible to base an electricity price forecasting model on the factors that affects the most expen-sive production facility that are used to create energy, since the electricity market prac-tice marginal pricing.
School:Högskolan i Jönköping
Source Type:Master's Thesis
Keywords:electricity price regression analysis forecasting model emission allowances marginal pricing
Date of Publication:08/27/2007