Site Assessment and Remediation Feasibility Study of a Petroleum Hydrocarbons Contaminated Site
This study presents detailed procedures for site assessment, remedial system design, and optimization of the remedial action operation (RAO) for the petroleum-hydrocarbons contaminated sites. In this work, a petroleum-hydrocarbons contaminated site located in southern Taiwan was selected. Contaminants of concerns (CoCs) from leaking underground storage tanks (USTs) and associated piping included mono-aromatics (e.g., benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, xylenes), naphthalene, and aliphatic hydrocarbons. The direct push (DP) technology was adopted for soil gas and soil samples collection. CoCs in the affected subsurface soils and the aquifers were determined by solid-phase micro-extraction/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and several other analytic instruments. Site investigation via various tests was conducted to evaluate the geology, hydrogeology, bioactivity and free product availability. Based on results of specific site characterization, successful hydraulic containment and substantial recovery of observed free-phase petroleum product were achieved. During the process of field-scale remediation, a test cell which was equipped with a subset of monitoring points and numerous different function active wells (injection well, extraction well, monitoring well, soil gas monitoring probe, reference well and recovery well) was used for remedial system evaluation. A treatment train consisting of the source control treatment and in situ groundwater treatment technology was employed in this study. The former included a vertical containment barrier (i.e., slurry wall) and three pumping wells, whereas the latter included some passive remedial activities. Approximately 87% to 95% decline of the CoCs concentration was observed in those monitor wells after 135 days of operation. Results show that the spilled light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPLs) could be efficiently contained and removed using the treatment train system. The treatment train application could be successfully used to reduce the concentrations of CoCs in groundwater to satisfactory levels. Benzene was found to be the only compound in groundwater violating the groundwater pollution control standard. The risk assessment process including hazard identification and exposure assessment was conducted to assess the risk impact of benzene on the human health. Using the methodology approved by ASTM and American Petroleum Institute (API), the baseline carcinogenic risk (9.0E-07) and risk-based groundwater screening level for benzene (0.660 mg/L) were determined. The BIOPLUME III model was also applied to simulate the transport and fate of benzene in site groundwater. Results from this study indicate that site assessment coupled with the treatment train could be used to reduce the concentrations of CoCs in groundwater and soil to satisfactory levels efficiently and effectively.
Advisor:none; none; none; none; none; none; none
School:National Sun Yat-Sen University
School Location:China - Taiwan
Source Type:Master's Thesis
Keywords:petroleum hydrocarbons health risk based assessment solid phase micro extraction site treatment train remediation
Date of Publication:09/07/2004