Simple sustainability indicators for residential areas of New Zealand
Abstract (Summary)The research investigates the development of indicators of sustainability from a bottom up approach. Five residential blocks in Auckland are examined in terms of their demands and their potential for using and generating energy. Energy involved in transport, carbon sequestration, food production and waste is also evaluated. The methodology developed is able to determine objectively both the comparative and the actual degree of sustainability in the residential blocks. The domestic and transport energy are the two major aspects of physical sustainability. It is possible to define the residential block both in planning and sustainable terms. The land use attributes responsible are the site configuration, household density per hectare, number of lots between adjacent roads, street network pattern, lot configuration and residential building density per hectare. The methodology is able to do a trend analysis over time. The household density per hectare could be a sole measure of sustainability provided that a lot more research is undertaken to formulate optimum density and density standards linked with energy use patterns of the residential blocks. Ultimately a simple set of sustainability indicators is formulated, which is useful for both public and professionals. The results of the study indicated that compact urban form limits the potential sustainability of residential blocks. As measured in this study the most sustainable urban form was the low-density (18 households/hectare) block at a distance from CBD.
School Location:New Zealand
Source Type:Master's Thesis
Date of Publication:01/01/2004