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Seat integrated safety belts :a parametric study using finite element simulations

by Gavelin, Anders

Abstract (Summary)
In recent years an increasing interest has evolved concerning seat integrated safety belts in cars, regarding both 3- and 4-point belts in various configurations. One safety advantage of seat integrated safety belts appears in the case of so-called small overlap crashes. One consequence of a small overlap crash can be that the colliding cars strike each other's sides hitting both the A- and B-pillar. Hence, the A- as well as the B-pillar are pushed inwards and backwards. In this case, belt anchor points on the B-pillar may also be pushed backwards and the belt will be stretched over the occupant. The purpose of the present study was to investigate seat integrated safety belt configurations that may involve a seat structure design that intentionally deforms and absorbs energy during a crash. Common 3-point configurations were used as references. The aim was to investigate how the physical properties influence the interaction of the seat back frame and the safety belt. Numerical simulations were carried out using the explicit LS-DYNA FE-analysis software. A FE-model of a seat structure, floor pan and B-pillar was established. A 50th percentile Hybrid III FE-dummy model was used as occupant and for studying the biomechanical responses. Different physical properties of the seat structure and different belt load limit forces were used as parametric variables. Only frontal crashes were considered. Responses concerning chest deflection, head- and chest displacement, change of pelvis angle, pelvis submarining tendency, lap- and torso belt forces, seat back frame deflection, ride-down efficiency, seat structure natural frequency, upper neck loads and neck injury criteria were studied. The results indicate that the belt-webbing distribution between the lap and the torso belts via a slip-ring and in combination with a non-rigid seat back frame increases the ride-down efficiency compared to a system with no belt-webbing distribution. Further, the combined use of different energy absorption mechanisms influences the biomechanical response as well as the structural response of an integrated safety belt configuration. An optimal solution with respect to multiple objectives requires a proper combination of parameters. Beside the optimisation of traditional biomechanical responses, the multiple objectives can be the minimisation of weight and cost as well as optimal control of passenger kinematics. The present study will hopefully create a basis for future research and possibly for the design of seat integrated safety belts.
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School:Luleå tekniska universitet

School Location:Sweden

Source Type:Master's Thesis

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Date of Publication:01/01/2006

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