SAFETY CULTURE INSTRUMENT: A PSYCHOMETRIC EVALUATION
Abstract (Summary)Safety culture is the combination of beliefs, values, norms, attitudes, and perceptions that employees of an organization share in relation to safety and safe practices. Breakdowns in safety occur when multiple system-safeguards fail, each necessary but not sufficient to cause an adverse event. Breakdowns are less likely to occur in healthcare organizations with a positive safety culture. Effective interventions to increase safety culture are ones that concentrate on systems, not individuals. Assessing the results of these interventions is problematic because there are no reliable and valid instruments to measure safety culture perceptions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Safety Culture Instrument (SCI). The SCI instrument was developed based on the work of Woods and colleagues (1994) as well as Kizer (1998) and was designed to measure nine dimensions of safety culture. However when tested, only four dimensions emerged: Positive Atmosphere (PA), Time/Resources (T/R), Openness (O), and Learning (L). A revised version of the CSI was used in this study. Construct validity using two different strategies (factor analysis and known-groups), and two types of reliability (internal consistency and stability) were assessed in a sample of 220 healthcare professionals from a rehabilitation hospital. Evidence of structural validity was found for three out of four scales (PA, O, and L). No evidence of known-group validity was demonstrated for any of the scales. Internal consistency reliability was .70 or above for three of the four scales (PA, T/R, and O). Stability reliability was evident for the four scales (r =.70 to .86). The four scales were revised to better reflect the factor structure. Using the revised scales, known-group validity was still not demonstrated but the reliability coefficients were higher except for the Time scale. Three scales (PA, T/R, and L) were reconceptualized to better reflect the content of the items. Item improvement is still needed, especially for the Learning scale even though there was evidence of validity. Item development for the T/R & L scales is essential.
School:University of Cincinnati
School Location:USA - Ohio
Source Type:Master's Thesis
Date of Publication:01/01/2004