Ribosomal Proteins in Diamond-Blackfan Anemia :Insights into Failure of Ribosome Function
Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a severe congenital anemia characterized by a defect in red blood cell production. The disease is associated with growth retardation, malformations, a predisposition for malignant disease and heterozygous mutations in either of the ribosomal protein (RP) genes RPS7, RPS17, RPS19, RPS24, RPL5, RPL11 and RPL35a.In a cellular model for DBA, siRNA knock-down of RPS19 results in a relative decrease of other ribosomal (r) proteins belonging to the small subunit (RPS20, RPS21, RPS24) when compared to r-proteins from the large ribosomal subunit (RPL3, RPL9, RPL30, RPL38). RPS19 mutant cells from DBA patients show a similar and coordinated down-regulation of small subunit proteins. The mRNA levels of the small subunit r-proteins remain relatively unchanged. We also show that RPS19 has an extensive number of transcriptional start sites resulting in mRNAs of variable 5’UTR length. The short variants are translated more efficiently. Structural sequence variations in the 5’UTR of RPS19 found in DBA patients show a 20%-30% reduced translational activity when compared to normal transcripts.Primary fibroblast from DBA patients with truncating mutations in RPS19 or RPS24 showed specific cell cycle defects. RPS19 mutant fibroblasts accumulate in the G1 phase whereas the RPS24 mutant cells show a defect in G2/M phase. The G1 phase arrest is associated with a reduced level of phosphorylated retinoblastoma (Rb) protein, cyclin E and cdk2 whereas the G2/M phase defect is associated with increased levels of p21, cyclin E, cdk4 and cdk6.RPS19 interacts with PIM-1 kinase. We investigated the effects of targeted disruptions of both Rps19 and Pim-1 in mice. Double mutant (Rps19+/-, Pim-1-/-) mice have increased peripheral white- and red blood cell counts when compared to the wild-type mice (Rps19+/+, Pim-1+/+). Bone marrow cells in Rps19+/-, Pim-1-/- mice showed up-regulated levels of c-Myc and the anti-apoptotic factors Bcl2, Bcl-xl and Mcl-1 and reduced levels of the apoptotic factors Bak and Caspase 3 as well as the cell cycle regulator p21.In summary, this thesis clarifies several mechanisms in the pathogenesis of DBA. Mutations in RPS19 results in coordinated down-regulation of several small subunit r-proteins causing haploinsufficiency for the small ribosomal subunit. RPS19 have multiple transcriptional start sites and mutations in the RPS19 5’UTR found in DBA patients result in reduced translational activity. At the cellular level, mutations in RPS19 and RPS24 cause distinct cell cycle defects and reduced cell proliferation. Finally, PIM-1 kinase and RPS19 cooperates in the proliferation of myeloid cells.
Source Type:Doctoral Dissertation
Keywords:MEDICINE; Dermatology and venerology,clinical genetics, internal medicine; Clinical genetics; Medical genetics; Diamond-Blackfan anemia; RPS19; Ribosomal proteins; Haploinsufficiency; cell cycle; Apoptosis; Erythropoiesis; Clinical Genetics; klinisk genetik
Date of Publication:01/01/2009