Regulierung und Verfügbarkeit von Apolipoprotein E in Astrozyten
Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is an abundant component of plasma lipoproteins that plays a key role in lipid transport and cholesterol homeostasis via the low density lipoprotein receptor. In the CNS, apoE is synthesised and secreted especially by astrocytes. ApoE isoforms have different effects on a number of pathological processes underlying Alzheimer’s disease. Therefore, understanding the regulated synthesis of apoE is important for determining its role in Alzheimer’s disease. One aim of this work was to examine whether the second-messenger-pathways „adenylyl cyclase/proteinkinase A (PKA)“ and/or „phospholipase C/proteinkinase C (PLC/PKC) are involved in the regulation of apoE secretion in astrocytes. Therefore rat primary hippocampal astrocyte cultures were incubated with various analogues, receptor agonists and neurotransmitters which influence these pathways. Dibutyryl-cAMP (cAMP analogue) increased the apoE secretion. ApoE secretion was also modulated by receptor agonists of the adenylyl cyclase/PKA pathway. Isoproterenol (beta-adrenoceptor agonist) enhanced, while Clonidine (alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist) decreased, the secreted apoE. In contrast, the PKC activator phorbol 12-myrisate 13-acetate decreased the apoE secretion. It also reversed the effects of dibutyryl-cAMP. Arterenol (alpha 1-adrenoceptor) and serotonin (neurotransmitter) enhanced, whereas carbachol (acetylcholine muscarinic receptor agonist) deceased secreted apoE. It is shown, that the used substances have different effects on the secretion of the nerve growth factor (NGF) as compared to apoE secretion, suggesting that the results obtained were unlikely to be due to a general effect on protein synthesis. It can be concluded that actrocytic apoE production can be regulated by factors that affect cAMP intracellular concentration or activate PKC. The second aim of this work was to examine whether amyloid fragments have an effect on the apoE secretion of astrocytes. Senile amyloid plaques in Alzheimer’s disease brains show apoE immunoreactivity, astrocytes which surround them do not. It is shown, that aged, fibrillic amyloid (1-40) increases apoE secretion. The secreted apoE is bound to the surrounding amyloid conglomerates. The used amyloid fragments did not increase or decrease basic fibroblast growth factor secretion, suggesting that the results obtained were unlikely to be due to a general effect on protein synthesis.
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School:Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
Source Type:Master's Thesis
Keywords:cAMP Amyloid Alzheimer’s disease protein kinase C amyloid
Date of Publication:05/24/2005