Ractopamine Hydrochloride and the Environmental Sustainability of Pork Production
In the growth experiment, RAC had no effect ADG, ADFI, or G:F (P > 0.10). With increased Lys levels G:F improved (P < 0.05), but not ADG or ADFI (P > 0.10). Protein deposition rates numerically increased (P = 0.11), water deposition rates tended to increase (P < 0.10), whereas lipid deposition tended to decrease with RAC inclusion (P < 0.10). In the metabolism experiment, with greater levels of RAC and Lys the pigs had improved ADG (P < 0.05) and G:F (P < 0.001). Water intake (P < 0.05.) and urine output (P < 0.05) decreased with greater RAC inclusions. Lys inclusion did not alter water balance (P > 0.10). Urinary N excretion (P < 0.05), total N excretion (P < 0.05), and the urine N:fecal N ratio (P < 0.001) decreased with addition of dietary RAC; however fecal N (P < 0.05) increased with dietary RAC inclusion. Retention of N improved with addition of RAC to the diet (P < 0.05). With greater dietary Lys inclusion fecal N was reduced (P < 0.001). The pigs fed the 2.25 g/Mcal Lys tended to have the lowest urinary N and total N excretion and highest N retention (P < 0.10) and greatest urinary N:fecal N ratio (P < 0.05). A RAC x Lys interaction was observed for N digestibility, excretion, and retention and fecal and urinary N (P < 0.05). By improving N and water utilization in finishing pigs, RAC containing diets supplemented with sufficient Lys can reduce the environmental footprint of pork production.
Advisor:Mutsvangwa, Tim ; Paterson, Phyllis ; Leterme, Pascal; Drew, Murray ; Beaulieu, Denise ; Patience, John F.
School:University of Saskatchewan
School Location:Canada - Saskatchewan
Source Type:Master's Thesis
Keywords:ractopamine nitrogen excretion environment water swine
Date of Publication:03/25/2009