Quality Evaluation of Cheddar Cheese Containing Gamma-Oryzanol
Health benefits from consuming rice bran oil (RBO) have been extensively studied in humans. RBO has been shown to decrease cholesterol absorption by inhibiting the oxidation of the LDL-cholesterol. Gamma-Oryzanol is one of the RBO components that possess antioxidative properties; it is a polyphenolic compound resembling tocopherol (vitamin E), which is another component of RBO. There are evidences that oryzanol has potential applications for enhancing shelf-life of foods containing fats processed at a high temperature, decreasing the total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels in plasma lipids, and healing ulcers. In order to take advantage of the health benefits of oryzanol, food products fortified with oryzanol should be developed and characterized. Cheddar cheese containing Gamma-Oryzanol was developed, and the effects of oryzanol on cheese quality during ripening process were studied. Cheese was stored for 5 months and drawn every month for quality evaluation of color, texture, microbial growth, aroma development, bacterial identification by polymerase chain reaction, oryzanol retention, moisture content and free fatty acid profile. The consumer acceptance was evaluated after 5 months of maturation. The results indicated that by adding Gamma-Oryzanol to cheddar cheese changes occurred in the quality, but, they were not significant when stored for up to 4 months, and the Gamma-Oryzanol was well retained. Consumers were able to differentiate the cheddar cheese containing Gamma-Oryzanol from the control containing no Gamma-Oryzanol. Overall appearance, texture, taste and hardness were the most discriminatory sensory attributes. There was a significant positive increase 0.13 to 0.30 times higher in the purchase intent of cheddar cheese containing Gamma-Oryzanol after consumers had been informed about the health benefits of oryzanol. Overall liking was the attribute critical to purchase intent and the most important attribute that changed the acceptability of the cheese. Consumers preferred the cheese with Gamma-Oryzanol less than the control but were willing to buy it and compromise the overall liking of cheese merely to get the health benefits of the product. Further studies need to be done to determine the direct effects of cheddar cheese containing Gamma-Oryzanol in human health, and to optimize the homogenization and fortification of Gamma-Oryzanol when incorporated in cheese products.
Advisor:Marlene Janes; Witoon Prinyawiwatkul; Charles Boeneke; Zhimin Xu
School:Louisiana State University in Shreveport
School Location:USA - Louisiana
Source Type:Master's Thesis
Date of Publication:07/07/2004