Pyrroloiminoquinone metabolites from South African Latrunculid sponges
Tsitsikamma pedunculata was shown to contain 7,8-dehydro-3-dihydro-discorhabdin C (2.1), 14-bromo-7,8-dehydro-3-dihydro-discorhabdin C (2.2), discorhabdin S (2.3), 14-bromo-1-hydroxy-discorhabdin S (2.4), 1-bromo-2-hydroxy-4-debromo-discorhabdin S (2.5), and 2,4-debromo-3-dihydro-discorhabdin C (2.6), together with the known compounds 14-bromo-discorhabdin C (1.51), 14-bromo-3-dihydro-discorhabdin C (1.52) and 3-dihydro-discorhabdin C. The metabolites from T. pedunculata were characterised by the presence of a reduced C-3 carbonyl and bromination at C-14.
Compounds isolated from a second Latrunculid sponge, Latrunculia lorii, ranged from a substituted bicyclic pyrrolecarboxylic acid, makaluvic acid A (1.47), to the simple tricyclic known pyrroloiminoquinones makaluvamine C (1.33) and damirone B (1.20) and the more complex discorhabdin D type metabolites, discorhabdin M (3.2), 1-amino discorhabdin D (3.3), 1-methoxy discorhabdin D (3.4) and 1-alanyl discorhabdin D (3.5). Discorhabdin G* (3.1) was also isolated and characterised. This is the first reported occurrence of the known compounds 1.20, 1.33 and 1.47 in a Latrunculia sponge.
Discorhabdin and bis-pyrroloiminoquinone type compounds predominated in Tsitsikamma favus. Three known, tsitsikammamines A (1.71) and B (1.72), 1.52, and five new pyrroloiminoquinones, tsitsikammamine N-oxime (4.1), tsitsikammamine B N-oxime (4.2), 2.1, 2.4 and 2.6, were isolated from this sponge. A fourth Latrunculid sponge (Strongylodesma sp.) yielded three known compounds, discorhabdins A (1.57), D (1.61) and 1.53, and one new pyrroloiminoquinone 3.3.
The dual role of these metabolites as cytotoxic agents and pigments resulted in an attempt to relate the photochemical properties of these metabolites to their cytotoxicity. The pyrroloiminoquinone metabolites studied exhibited moderate singlet oxygen quantum yields, while three compounds (1.57, 4.1 and 4.2) were shown to be capable of producing radicals at a wavelength of 532 nm. The possibility of a correlation between the electrochemical properties and anti-cancer (HCT-116) activity of selected pyrroloiminoquinones was explored. A study of the oesophageal and ovarian cytotoxicities of two pyrroloiminoquinones (1.57 and 1.72), together with an investigation into the intercalation and topoisomerase I inhibitory activity of the bis-pyrroloiminoquinones (1.71, 1.72, 4.1 and 4.2), are presented.
School Location:South Africa
Source Type:Master's Thesis
Date of Publication:01/01/2003