Processing and On-Wafer Test of Ferroelectric Film Microwave Varactors
Microwave materials have been widely used in a variety of applications ranging from communication devices to military satellite services, and the study of materials properties at microwave frequencies and the development of functional microwave materials have always been among the most active areas in solid-state physics, materials science, electrical and electronic engineering. In recent years, the increasing requirements for the development of high speed, high frequency circuits and systems require complete understanding of the properties of materials function at microwave frequencies. Ferroelectric materials usually have high dielectric constant, and their dielectric properties are temperature and electric field dependent. The change in permittivity as a function of electric field is the key to a wide range of applications. Ferroelectric materials can be used to fabricate capacitors for electronic industry because of their high dielectric constant, and this is important in the trend toward miniaturization and high functionality of electronic products. The simple tunable passive component based on ferroelectric films is a varactor which can be made as a planar structure and used for electrically tunable microwave integrated circuits. It is an important task to sinter highly tunable and low loss ferroelectrics, fabricate and test the properties of microwave ferroelectric components.This thesis shows experimental results on growth, crystalline and microwave properties of Na0.5K0.5NbO3 (NKN), AgTa0.5Nb0.5O3 (ATN), Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 (BST) as well as AgTaO3 (ATO), and AgNbO3 (ANO) thin films. The films were grown by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) and rf-magnetron sputtering techniques from stoichiometric high density ceramic NKN, ATN, ATO, ANO and BST targets onto LaAlO3 (LAO), Al2O3 (r-cut sapphire), Nd:YAlO3 single crystals and amorphous glass substrates. Advanced X-ray diffraction examinations showed NKN, ATN, BST films on LAO substrates grow epitaxially, whereas films on r-cut sapphire were found to be preferentially (00l) oriented.Coplanar waveguide 2 µm finger gap interdigital capacitor (CPWIDC) structures were fabricated by photolithography process and metal lift-off technique. On-wafer tests up to 40 GHz were performed to characterize microwave properties of the ferromagnetic film CPWIDC devices. The measurement setup is composed of network analyzer, probe station, and microwave G-S-G probes. External electric field was applied to planar capacitors to measure tunability. Original de-embedding technique has been developed to calculate capacitance, loss tan ?, and tunability of varactors from the measured S-parameters.NKN film interdigital capacitors on Nd:YAlO3 showed superior performance compared to ATN in the microwave range from 1 to 40 GHz. Within this range, the voltage tunability (40V, 200 kV/cm) was about 29%, loss tangent ~ 0.13, K-factor = tunability/tan ? from 152% @ 10GHz to 46% @ 40GHz. The ATN/sapphire CPWIDCs showed the lowest dispersion ~ 4.3% in whole frequency range from 1 to 40 GHz, voltage tunability 4.7% @ 20GHz and 200 kV/cm, lowest loss tangent ~ 0.068 @ 20GHz, K-factor = tunability/tan ? ranged from 124% @ 10GHz to 35% @ 40GHz.BST film CPWIDCs on sapphire showed frequency about 17%, the highest voltage tunability ~ 22.2%, loss tangent ~ 0.137 @ 20GHz, and K-factor = 281% @ 10GHz to 95% @ 40GHz.
School:Kungliga Tekniska högskolan
Source Type:Doctoral Dissertation
Keywords:TECHNOLOGY; Electrical engineering, electronics and photonics; : ferroelectrics; sodium potassium niobates; silver tantalite niobate; barium strontium titanate; thin films; pulsed laser deposition; rf magnetron sputtering; coplanar waveguide; photolithography
Date of Publication:01/01/2006