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Probing and three-point bend methods compared to sensory scales as measurements for cookie texture [electronic resource] /

by Woody, Aaron Lee

Abstract (Summary)
Cookies, an important product of the food industry, have distinctive textural attributes that affect consumer perception of quality. Reliable methods of texture evaluation of cookies are important to monitor the manufacture of consistent, consumer acceptable products. Instrumental methods for textural evaluation that correlate with sensory values can help with the speed, cost, and ease of evaluating during processing. A study was conducted to evaluate differences and similarities between two instrumental methods and sensory evaluation of texture evaluation for seven commercially available varieties of cookies (two shortbread, pecan shortbread, a soft and hard sugar cookie, and a soft and hard oatmeal cookie). The probing method involved multiple probes of each cookie and three point bending broke the cookie into two pieces to measurement of hardness. Probing a soft cookie gave one smooth peak resulting in only one measurement of maximum peak force. Alternatively, when a hard cookie was probed it gave multiple peaks. The probing method, typically used for softer cookies, used multiple probes to obtain peaks that varied depending on type of cookie. Differences (p<0.05) were found among the cookies for hardness, fracturability, and moistness in the sensory evaluation part of the study. The cookies were found to be different (p<0.05) for instrumental fracturability, hardness, and area for both the probing and three-point bend methods. The cookies could be grouped together into logical groups based on the instrumental analysis. The cookies could be split into two groups: high moisture and low moisture. These groupings followed a similar pattern as the hardness measurements. Accordingly, the differences between the measurements for each method indicate a need for study of the relationship of these values to the sensory responses to validate the measurements of each method. R-values from multiple regression revealed that the instrumental methods were not linearly related to sensory scores and therefore would be inappropriate to use when predicting the texture of cookies.
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School:The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga

School Location:USA - Tennessee

Source Type:Master's Thesis

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