The Preparation of Nanoscale Bimetallic Particles and Its Application on In-Situ Soil/Groundwater Remediation
The objective of this research was to evaluate the treatment efficiency of a nitrate-contaminated soil by combined technologies of the injection of palladized nanoiron slurry and electrokinetic remediation process. First, nanoiron was prepared by two synthesis processes based on the same chemical reduction principle yielding products of NZVI-A and NZVI-B, respectively. Then they were characterized by various methods. Micrographs of scanning electron microscopy have shown that a majority of these nanoparticles were in the range of 50-80 nm and 30-40 nm, respectively. Results of nitrogen gas adsorption-desorption show that NZVI-A and NZVI-B are mesorporous (ca. 30-40 Å) with BET surface areas of 128 m2/g and 77 m2/g, respectively. Results of X-ray diffractometry have shown that both types of nanoiron were poor in crystallinity. Results of zeta-potential measurements indicated that NZVI-A and NZVI-B had the same isoelectric point at pH 6.0. Although NZVI-A and NZVI-B were found to be superparamagnetic, their magnetization values were low.
Poly acrylic acid (PAA), an anionic dispersant, was employed for stabilizing various types of nanoiron. Then Palladium¡]ca. 1 wt% of iron¡^ was selected as catalysis to form palladized nanoiron¡]Pd/Fe¡^. Results have demonstrated that an addition of 1 vol. % of PAA during the nanoiron preparation process would result in a good stabilization of nanoiron and nanoscale Pd/Fe slurry.
Batch tests were carried out to investigate the effects of pH variation on degradation of nitrate aqueous solutions. Experimental results have indicated that palladized nanoiron outperformed nanoiron in treatment of nitrate in this study. Apparently, an employment of catalyst would enhance the treatment efficiency. Further, an exponential increase of the reaction rate was found for the systems at low pH.
The final stage of this study was to evaluate the treatment efficiency of combined technologies of the injection of palladized nanoiron¡]Pd/Fe¡^ slurry and electrokinetic remediation process in treating a nitrate-contaminated soil. Test conditions used were given as follows: (1) slurry injection to four different positions in the soil matrix; (2) electric potential gradient: 1 V/cm; (3) daily addition of 20 mL of palladized nanoiron (4 g/L) slurry to the injection position; and (4) reaction time: 6 days. Test results have shown that addition of palladized nanoiron slurry to the anode reservoir yielded the lowest residual nitrate concentration in soil. Namely, about 99.5% removal of nitrate from soil. On the other hand, the acidic condition of soil matrix around the anode reservoir would enhance the degradation of nitrate therein. Based on the above findings, the treatment method employed in this work was proven to be a novel and efficient one in treating nitrate contaminated soil.
Advisor:Jhy-chern Liu; Shu-chen Hsieh; Chien-hsiang Chang; New-jin Ho; Gordon C. C. Yang; Chon-lin Lee; I-yuang Hsu
School:National Sun Yat-Sen University
School Location:China - Taiwan
Source Type:Master's Thesis
Keywords:palladized nanoiron nanoscale zero valent iron soil groundwater pollution electrokinetic process
Date of Publication:08/28/2007