Physico-Chemical Properties of Chickpea Flour, Starch and Protein Fractions and Their Utilization in Low-Fat Pork Bologna

by Sanjeewa, Thushan

Abstract (Summary)
The main objective of this research was to investigate possible uses of Western-Canadian grown chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in the form of flour, starch and protein isolates in low-fat pork bologna.

In the first study, flour, starch and protein isolates from six chickpea cultivars (three Kabuli and three Desi) from two harvests (2005 and 2006) were evaluated for their physico-chemical, functional and thermal properties. Chickpea flour was made by grinding seed to pass through a 0.1mm screen, whereas protein isolates and starch were prepared by a wet milling process. Protein isolates were prepared from chickpea flour (23.2% protein on average) by alkaline extraction (pH 8.0) and isoelectric precipitation (pH 4.3). Protein isolates contained 72.8-85.3% protein; the starch fraction contained 93.0-98.0% starch. On SDS-PAGE, the chickpea flours and protein isolates contained similar polypeptide bands in the range of 30 to 55 kDa, with three major bands at approximately 50-55, 40 and 30 kDa. Least gelation concentration (LGC) for chickpea flours ranged from 6-14%; LGC for chickpea protein isolates ranged from 10-14%. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) of chickpea flour slurries revealed two endothermic peaks. One corresponded to starch gelatinization at approximately 64°C, which was slightly higher than for the starch fraction (~60°C). The second broad peak at approximately 96°C corresponded to the denaturation of the globulin protein fraction, which was also slightly higher than for the protein isolates (~91°C). Chickpea flour exhibited nitrogen solubility index values higher than those of chickpea protein isolates and soy and pea protein isolates. Chickpea protein isolates exhibited water holding capacities, oil absorption capacities, emulsion activity indeces and emulsion stability indeces higher than those of the chickpea flours. CDC Xena (Kabuli) and Myles (Desi), in general, most exhibited properties appropriate for meat applications. In the second study, the efficacy of flour, starch and protein from CDC Xena (Kabuli hereafter) and Myles (Desi hereafter) were investigated in low-fat pork bologna (LFPB). Low-fat pork bologna (<5% fat) was prepared by incorporating 2.5 or 5.0% flour, 1.5 or 3.0% protein isolate (protein basis), or 1.0 or 2.0% starch in the formulation. Controls were prepared without any binder, and formulations containing wheat or pea flour, soy or pea protein isolate, potato or pea starch, or extra meat were prepared for comparison. Inclusion of chickpea flour, protein or starch had a positive effect (P<0.05) on the cook yield, expressible moisture and purge of LFPB, and had little effect on colour. Increasing chickpea flour substitution from 2.5 to 5.0% altered the sensory and instrumental textural quality of LFPB significantly (P<0.05). Desi flour at 5.0% showed the highest TPA (texture profile analysis) hardness and chewiness, Allo-Kramer shear values and torsion shear stress. Similarly, LFPB containing chickpea protein isolate (CPI), soy protein isolate (SPI) or pea protein isolate (PPI) (3.0% protein basis) was firmer than either LFPB containing 1.5% protein from CPI, SPI or PPI or the control-I (with the same level of meat protein). Likewise, LFPB formulated with 2.0% Kabuli or Desi starch had higher TPA values than those prepared with pea or potato starch. For most flavour sensory properties, Kabuli and Desi chickpea flour and starch, irrespective of level of incorporation, performed similarly to the control. However, panellists noted more off-flavours with the addition of wheat flour or pea flour at 5.0%. Chickpea protein isolate, SPI or PPI at the 1.5% protein addition level did not alter the flavour properties of LFPB.

It was concluded that chickpea flour, starch and protein had potential for utilization as extenders in low-fat meat emulsion systems such as frankfurters and bologna.

Bibliographical Information:

Advisor:Arntfield, S D; Shand, P; Tyler, B; Wanasundara, J; Pietrasik, Z

School:University of Saskatchewan

School Location:Canada - Saskatchewan

Source Type:Master's Thesis

Keywords:legume sensory low fat bologna binder chickpea


Date of Publication:09/05/2008

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