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Pharmacogenomics of Antihypertensive Treatment & Clinical Pharmacological Studies of Digoxin Treatment

by Hallberg, Pär

Abstract (Summary)
In Part I we found that the CYP2C9 genotype appears to influence the diastolic blood pressure response to the angiotensin II-receptor antagonist irbesartan in patients with hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy. Those with the *1/*2 genotype (slower metabolism) responded better than those with the *1/*1 genotype (normal metabolism), likely due to a slower elimination of the drug. We further found that a +9/-9 exon 1 polymorphism of the B2 bradykinin receptor gene – shown to affect mRNA expression - appears to influence the regression of left ventricular mass during therapy with irbesartan or the beta-blocker atenolol in the same patients. Subjects with the -9/-9 genotype (higher mRNA expression) had a greater regression than carriers of the +9 allele.In Part II we found that women on digoxin therapeutic drug monitoring have higher serum digoxin concentrations (SDCs) as compared to men (1.54±0.04 [nmol/L±SE] vs 1.20±0.05 [nmol/L±SE], p<0.001), which could be of importance since an SDC >1.4 nmol/L has been associated with increased mortality. We further found that coadministration of P-glycoprotein inhibitors with digoxin was common (47%) among the same patients, and that the SDC increased in a stepwise fashion with the number of P-glycoprotein inhibitors (20-60%). Lastly, we found that patients admitted to Swedish coronary care units with atrial fibrillation without heart failure and who had been given digoxin had a higher 1-year mortality than those not given digoxin (RR 1.44 [95% CI 1.29-1.60], adjustment made for potential confounders).In conclusion, Part I represents a further step in the pharmacogenomic prospect of tailoring antihypertensive therapy. Part II indicates that heightened attention to the digoxin-dose is warranted in women, that there is a need for awareness about P-glycoprotein interactions with digoxin, and that long-term therapy with digoxin is an independent risk factor for death among patients with atrial fibrillation without heart failure.
Bibliographical Information:

Advisor:

School:Uppsala universitet

School Location:Sweden

Source Type:Doctoral Dissertation

Keywords:MEDICINE; Dermatology and venerology,clinical genetics, internal medicine; Internal medicine; Molecular medicine (genetics and pathology); Molecular medicine; pharmacogenomics; irbesartan; atenolol; hypertension; digoxin; RIKS-HIA; atrial fibrillation; heart failure; Molekylärmedicin

ISBN:91-554-6241-3

Date of Publication:01/01/2005

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