Opportunities for CO2 Reductions and CO2-Lean Energy Systems in Pulp and Paper Mills

by Möllersten, Kenneth

Abstract (Summary)
The risk for climate change is a growing concern for theglobal society. According to what is known as the Kyoto Protocol,developed countries have committed themselves to reduce theirgreenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The purpose of this thesis hasbeen to analyse opportunities for CO2 reductions in Swedish pulpand paper mills. The pulp and paper industry accounts forsignificant shares of the Swedish utilisationof both electricityand, in particular, biomass fuels. In this thesis, it has been agoal to focus not only on the technical potential of alternativesfor CO2 reductions in the energy systems of pulp and paper mills,but also on analysing the costeffectiveness of the studiedmeasures. Moreover, the analysis has covered questions concerningthe capacity and willingness among the actors involved with thepulp and paper mills?energy systems to realise CO2reduction potentials.A broad techno-economical evaluation of available technologiesfor increased power production as well as more efficient energyutilisation is carried out. Furthermore, a more indepth analysisof pulp mill-based biomass energy with CO2 removal and permanentsequestration (BECS) is presented. An evaluation is made of thepotential for pulp and paper production with a negative CO2balance through the implementation of BECS. In recent yearsoutside suppliers, mainly energy service companies (ESCOs), havebegun to operate energy facilities in some Swedish pulp and papermills. Based on interviews with managers from pulp and papercompanies and ESCOs, the main driving forces behind theincreasing co-operation as well as the opportunities and riskswith energy related co-operation are presented.Furthermore, the technical possibility of carbon-negativitythrough the implementation of BECS is discussed in relation tocarbon management on both corporate and global levels. The extentto which CO2-reducing measures in pulp and paper mills arerealised will have an impact on Sweden?s capacity to reachCO2 reduction targets. Whether or not technologies for CO2capture and sequestration are developed and implemented inSwedish pulp mills has a very large impact on the size ofSweden?s long-term CO2 reduction potential. Moreover, thedevelopment of business and competence focus in pulp and papercompanies and ESCOs suggests that cooperation will become ofincreasing importance for future sustainable industrial energymanagement.Keywords:CO2 reduction, pulp and paper industry, energysystem, biomass, CO2 capture and sequestration, black liquor,gasification, power production, outsourcing, sustainable energymanagement
Bibliographical Information:


School:Kungliga Tekniska högskolan

School Location:Sweden

Source Type:Doctoral Dissertation

Keywords:CO2 reduction; pulp and paper industry; energy system; biomass; CO2 capture and sequestration; black liquor; gasification; power production; outsourcing; sustainable energy management


Date of Publication:01/01/2002

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