Open Sesame: From Student Success towards Faculty Research Contributions in Institutional Repositories

by Hagen, John H., BA

Abstract (Summary)
A growing body of evidence regarding the provision of open access of research material is demonstrating that scholarly citations increase as a direct result. In this paper, I will substantiate this impact factor with statistical analysis and case studies that prove the granting of open access of an electronic thesis or dissertation (ETD) can and does open many doors of opportunity for the student. Traditionally, one of the most difficult areas in convincing students and faculty about usage of open access of ETDs has been in the humanities, particularly in fields such as history where junior faculty at research institutions must publish monographs (as opposed to a string of refereed journal articles) as the basis for successful promotion and tenure review. The practical implications regarding successful student experiences is indeed convincing our faculty of the many positive dimensions of open access as we promote the expectation that they should contribute their research works without restriction to our university’s institutional repository. This type of affirmative evidentiary endorsement will no doubt augment faculty contributions not only to our own institutional repository, but even more importantly it will significantly enhance their involvement in the global research cycle of scholarly communications. We hope this will serve as a model for other institutions seeking to facilitate the promotion of open access of their scholarly works.
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Bibliographical Information:


School:West Virginia University

School Location:USA - West Virginia

Source Type:Other

Keywords:institutional repository; West Virginia University Libraries; electronic theses and dissertations; ETDs; Faculty Research


Date of Publication:05/20/2008

Document Text (Pages 1-10)

ETD 2008

Open Sesame: From Student Success towards Faculty Research
Contributions in Institutional Repositories

John H. Hagen

West Virginia University Libraries, U.S.A.


A growing body of evidence regarding the provision of open access of research
material is demonstrating that scholarly citations increase as a direct result. In this
paper, I will substantiate this impact factor with statistical analysis and case studies
that prove the granting of open access of an electronic thesis or dissertation (ETD)
can and does open many doors of opportunity for the student.

Traditionally, one of the most difficult areas in convincing students and faculty
about usage of open access of ETDs has been in the humanities, particularly in
fields such as history where junior faculty at research institutions must publish
monographs (as opposed to a string of refereed journal articles) as the basis for
successful promotion and tenure review. The practical implications regarding
successful student experiences is indeed convincing our faculty of the many
positive dimensions of open access as we promote the expectation that they should
contribute their research works without restriction to our university’s institutional

This type of affirmative evidentiary endorsement will no doubt augment faculty
contributions not only to our own institutional repository, but even more
importantly it will significantly enhance their involvement in the global research
cycle of scholarly communications. We hope this will serve as a model for other
institutions seeking to facilitate the promotion of open access of their scholarly


Page 2


This discussion will explore student successes in the West Virginia University (WVU)
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation (ETD) program and relate this to trends regarding open
access and student and faculty attitudes towards open access institutional repositories.
Traditionally, one of the most difficult areas in convincing students and faculty about using
open access with ETDs has been in the humanities, particularly in fields such as history
where junior faculty at research institutions must publish monographs (as opposed to a series
of refereed journal articles) as the basis for successful promotion and tenure review. Another
interesting story is the situation with masters of fine arts creative writing (MFA CW)
students, whose tight markets create great competition. Yet there are those in the humanities
who have dared to cross the open access line, to be courageous enough to put one’s self out
there before getting published, and they have demonstrated phenomenal success because of

The Importance of ETDs
Grey literature, as is the case with ETDs, has grown tremendously in importance to
scholarship since the advent of the Internet and efforts led by organizations such as the
Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (NDLTD). As mentioned in the
article “Don’t Let the Grey Fade Away”1,

While the question of how to find grey literature and make it available has
always been a challenge for librarians, the advent of web-based tools is
starting to make the job easier. At the same time, the web has enabled the
production and publication of a much greater body of grey literature.
However, unless this literature is archived, it could disappear from public view

Jennie Grimshaw, lead content specialist for social policy and official
publications at the British Library, says: “Grey literature is enormously
valuable to users because it is often more informative than articles in peerreviewed

“You’ll get the full methodology, which is often omitted from peer-reviewed
journals, because authors are often asked to cut an article down to 10 pages.

“The research report will give you more information about the data set, and
more information about the research that was unsuccessful, because there’s a
tendency for people to publish formally only the interventions that were
successful, not the ones that didn’t work.”

To make it easier to search across institutional repositories, the Networked
Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (NDLTD) has initiated a project to
harvest metadata from university electronic theses and dissertations.

“Before the internet, you had to rely on a smattering of incomplete sources,
hit-and-miss journal and monograph sources and dissertation indices,” says
John Hagen, manager of institutional repository programs and co-ordinator of
the electronic thesis and dissertation programme at the University of West


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Virginia. “So much of the body of grey literature remained hidden,
languishing on library shelves.”…

Hagen believes such initiatives have revolutionised scholarship. “Universities
can now immediately share their intellectual property output with the world,”
he says.

It is clear that the modern age of the Internet, indexing and open access availability of
research documents including ETDs has transcended traditional modes of access and created
a greater prominence of recognition for this oft forgot niche in academia.

Meta-information Trends
The IR collection metadata, citations and access statistics can provide effective discovery
tools for university students and faculty. These resources can facilitate the administrative
process of gathering evidence of scholarly activities for use in promotion and tenure
performance evaluations. This value added approach to IR services is becoming increasingly
important because the very transparent nature of open access collections creates a public
record of research. Access can be accounted for in the quantity of downloads, inferring some
sense of popularity. Further, citation analysis is becoming increasingly critical for an
individual and/or institutional entity as an index of the dissemination, peer review,
acceptance, success and ultimate contribution to the research cycle. This provides a
foundation and means for the formation of the virtual social constructs surrounding these
scholarly works.

Historically, the scope of IRs has been about providing access to the research work itself.
Interestingly, the topic of metadata, access and citation analysis has revealed itself to be
intrinsically linked with the research phenomena – the evolving processes and the e-
scholarship works themselves. Our intent here will be to investigate the motivational factors
for faculty submissions, the resulting impact of ETDs and how the variables can affect each
other. This has provided for a set of policy recommendations which although tailored to
situation at WVU, but in the broader context they can be applied to any given institution of
higher learning.

Background and Support

In 1997, West Virginia University Provost Gerald Lang appointed a university-wide project
team responsible for implementing an ETD program. By 1998, WVU mandated the ETD
submission requirement. Since the early days in discussion about student intellectual
property rights, the expense of requiring electronic format, and the ability to store and
retrieve electronic documents, the WVU ETD program has grown into an extraordinarily
successful program. Its special strength from the beginning has been the collaboration of
various campus units with the underlying support of the Provost.

Today, the WVU IR collection of ETDs and other scholarly online research collections such
as the Electronic Honors Theses for undergraduates and the Electronic Scholarly Resources
Archive for faculty are among the University’s most forward-looking endeavors. From the
start, the primary goals of the ETD project were to build a shared knowledge of digital
libraries among students and faculty, and to develop expertise in the management of
electronic collections. The early memoranda refer many times to the need to “unlock the
potential” of scholarly graduate and faculty research.


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In summer, 2007 WVU participated in the Association of College and Research Libraries’
Institute on Scholarly Communications, which yielded a road map for us to shepherd faculty
research contributions to our institutional repository. This project brought together the
University Libraries, the academic Colleges and Schools, the Graduate Council, the Office of
Information Technology, the Vice President for University Advancement and Marketing, the
Vice President for Graduate Affairs and the Office of the Provost. West Virginia University
has a decentralized graduate school environment; the various schools and colleges at WVU
manage their own accreditation and oversight. Central policy issues on graduate affairs are
coordinated through the Office of Graduate Education in the Provost's Office.

Collaboration among students, faculty, librarians and administrators has been a hallmark of
the WVU ETD program since its inception. Students have learned about electronic
publishing as they build and submit their ETDs; faculty have learned about digital libraries
and increased accessibility to scholars throughout the world. The Provost’s Office has
provided funding, leadership, and workshops to achieve this. We are now promoting how to
unlock the potential of WVU intellectual property and products as a whole, particularly
where our faculty are concerned.

In this environment of campus-wide collaboration and support, the WVU team represents our
strength and mission. Academic interests, entrepreneurship, and marketing are all present.
The team will be able to assess the needs of research faculty, market the IR and build support,
place the new IR in WVU’s priorities, and develop future partnerships across the campus.
We know faculty do not welcome campus meddling with their research. We believe our
focus must be our ability to communicate the benefits of the IR to the individual researcher.
The team members are all experienced in strategic thinking about the future of WVU. Their
accomplishment will be awakening the faculty to new dimensions of academic excellence
and creating openness to new ways of functioning as a teacher and a researcher.

The Libraries have formed a collaborative partnership with faculty on campus. Together they
are engaged in teaching, creating knowledge, and helping students succeed. The WVU 2010
Strategic Plan has two goals directly related to the Institute agenda: Promote Discovery and
Exchange of Knowledge and Ideas, and Improve West Virginia’s Health, Economy, and
Quality of Life. Quoting from the Strategic Plan:

Discovery and intellectual exchange define the purpose of any university …
The exchange between faculty and students sparks innovations in engineering,
health care, and physical sciences; it sparks new creative works and new
interpretations in performance and literature. And it sparks new perspectives
on local, national, and global issues.

A University that understands the nature of permeable boundaries looks
simultaneously inward and outward as it considers ways to foster a vital
intellectual climate. Permeable boundaries value the influx of new ideas and
new people, invite collaboration across disciplines, and extend knowledge and
ideas beyond the walls of the institution. Such sharing and exchange of ideas
and the people who possess them are important to advance learning and foster

It is from this grounding that WVU seeks to participate in this endeavor. The WVU
administration has chosen to be active in developing and sharing new forms of scholarly


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communication as part of the land grant mission. The WVU faculty, librarians, information
technologists, and information professionals have a history of successful collaboration and

We are moving much closer to our goal of unlocking our scholarly work. We will be
migrating to a new institutional repository system (Ex Libris’ DigiTool) in the coming year.
We have established a strong foundation and we are ready to develop an outreach plan. We
believe this path will help us clarify the objectives, audiences, and activities required to
implement a scholarly communications plan for WVU with the most impact and the widest

Justification and Goals

Our initiative will be to develop and implement the WVU Scholarly Communications
Outreach Program for E-Documents, AKA “Project SCOPE”. We now have an IR system
and programs in place to serve the entire university population; yet voluntary faculty
participation is low, even in the face of recent reports from Harnad et al indicating vastly
increased citation counts for faculty who publish in open access IRs (Figure 1)3. In 1998,
WVU became the second institution in the world to require ETD submission. We have
experienced tremendous success since that time. For example, during the first two of years
following ETD program implementation, the access level of electronic over print theses and
dissertations increased by 145,000% (Figure 2). Presently with over 3,800 documents
(Figure 3), the collection is accessed millions of times per year (Figures 4, 5); WVU graduate
research is truly known around the world. We believe the student successes experienced
from ETD program implementation will apply equally to our faculty; they are just beginning
to realize the notoriety that their former graduate students are experiencing because of
electronic submission and open access, yet even this has not provided sufficient momentum
for acceptance at the faculty level (Figure 6).

Student Successes with Open Access ETDs
The WVU Libraries published a press release in March 2008 “Popular topic makes WVU
dissertation tops in downloads4 regarding one of our gems, WVU history doctoral student
Shirley Stewart Burns, who granted open access to her dissertation, received over 37,000
downloads of her dissertation in 2007, and simultaneously negotiated a book publishing deal
with the WVU Press. Her book on mountaintop removal was published in the fall of 2007;
sales have been enormously successful. This definitely set a precedent because history
doctoral graduates usually must publish monographs as opposed to a series of journal articles
for promotion and tenure at research universities. Now a decade later, many history doctoral
students file their dissertations as open access upon graduation. Ultimately, it did help dispel
the myth that granting open access to one’s dissertation would hurt one’s opportunities for
subsequent book publishing in this field. I have also gathered similar supporting evidence of
open access successes from other WVU students who chose open access in our “Top 10” list.
Generally speaking, students who granted open access upon graduation were more
successful; they had more articles published and were cited more often in the research
literature than those who restricted access. This should come as no surprise.

The Open Access Debate
In March 2008, Iowa State University announced that it would require immediate open
access ETD submissions, no exceptions allowed. The Masters of Fine Arts Creative Writing
(MFA CW) students and faculty at the University of Iowa voiced their concerns via an article
published in The Chronicle of Higher Education “U. of Iowa Writing Students Revolt Against


Page 6

a Plan They Say Would Give Away Their Work on the Web”.5 The school has since
rescinded the policy. There has been considerable and contentious debate at the national
level, particularly in The Chronicle online forums and via the Networked Digital Library of
Theses and Dissertations (NDLTD) consortium Listserv since this article surfaced. In the
end, we found that we could not go further in a productive manner without gathering hard
evidence regarding publisher policies and student post-graduate outcomes. A follow up
article “Readers Not Wanted: Student Writers Fight to Keep Their Work Off the Web”6
appeared in The Chronicle on May 16, 2008 in which I presented results of case studies of

WVU alumni. The following section will outline the survey I completed which lead to some
interesting conclusions on open access ETDs.

I assessed the post graduation outcomes of WVU MFA CW students, looking for potential
student successes with open access with creative works in particular since this is currently a
hot issue. In my follow-up survey, I compared open vs. restricted access for WVU MFA CW
ETDS by identifying career / publishing outcomes for ETD Submissions 2002 – 2007 (see
attached document). Although the findings are preliminary, they are very interesting in that
they reveal that open access can be beneficial, even for CW students. I found that upon
graduation approximately one half of WVU MFA CW students granted open access to their
ETDS; the other half restricted access to their ETDs. Clearly, a majority of students (69%)
who granted open access to their ETDs have been more successful in post-graduate
publishing and career endeavors than those who had restricted access.

Another one of our gems, the success story of Sara Pritchard, who upon graduation chose
open access for her thesis (a novel) and simultaneously won an award for another of her
novels “Crackpots”, published by Houghton Mifflin which went on to become a New York
Times Notable Book of the Year for 2003. This evidence suggests that students who have
opted for open access have successfully self-marketed their works. Further, we computed
aggregate average grade point averages (GPA) for open access versus restricted access MFA
CW students who had filed their thesis electronically using data analysis provided by the
WVU Office of Institutional Advancement. The results were as follows:

Open Access Average GPA: 3.95
Restricted Access Average GPA: 3.92

The lack of a difference in average GPA suggests that the academic performance does not
differ between the two groups. Although we might be able to infer that the quality of the
creative work may be related to one's GPA, it is not necessarily an indicator of the value of
the creative work. However, this does not support the claim that our better students have
simply chosen to submit with full access. Regardless of the reasons, open access to the thesis
did not appear to impose any barriers to publishing. In fact, open access actually enabled
many opportunities for students. In the five years reviewed in this survey since MFA
program inception, we have neither received any negative feedback whatsoever from MFA
CW alumni regarding the ETD requirement, nor have we received any requests to change
Web distribution of their ETDs from open to restricted access. There is not one shred of
evidence that the ETD requirement at WVU or even the open access option has been
detrimental to anyone’s career or ability to publish their creative works. These experiences
also falls in line with recent studies published by Stevan Harnad et al regarding the provision
of open access of scholarly publications in institutional repositories leading to increased
citation impact factors (in brief, depending on the discipline, open access works receive


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between 2 – 5 times more citations in subsequent scholarly publications than do restricted
access works).

Since our decision last spring to allow ETD exemptions for MFA CW students, beginning
with the summer 2007 semester, all MFA CW students applied for and received an ETD
exemption; only paper copies have been submitted to the University Libraries since that
point. This came to our attention in the spring of 2007 when Creative Writing program
director presented their concerns about the ETD requirement and cited The Association of
Writers and Writing Programs (AWP) recommendation to file paper copies of theses. It is
also important to know that at the same time we were presented with arguments against ETD
submission for WVU MFA CW students, Bowling Green State University, which offers one
of the most prestigious creative writing programs in the nation, announced that they would
allow ETD exemptions for BGSU MFA CW students. However, as I later discovered, AWP
also advises students to seek a “campus encrypted” option in schools that require ETDS.

AWP states in the AWP Director's Handbook:

If a college or university implements Electronic Theses and Dissertations
(ETDs), students should have an option to file a traditional paper thesis. If
creative writing students are required to file ETDs, then such ETDs should not
be made available on the World Wide Web, but instead available only to the
same communities that paper theses and dissertations have been made
available to in the past, for instance by password protecting access to the
creative thesis or dissertation.7

It is apparent that AWP is not entirely opposed to ETDs as long as they can be at least
initially restricted regarding online distribution. The bottom line is that AWP is opposed to
immediate open access. That is not to say that a student could not be successful in granting
open access to their ETD upon graduation, making a name for themselves based on their
ETD's popularity, and then go on to publish a derivative work or other works altogether as
our survey and press release indicate. However, I can understand why folks get uptight about
this given AWP's stated policy and the reality of tight markets in the literary publishing
arena. Yet even in this context, it is important to recognize that new forms of publishing
business models are evolving and adapting to the emergence and proliferation of digital
scholarship. WVU has offered the “Campus Encrypted” (password protected) option since
1999. Campus policy requires open access after five years, no exceptions. The rationale for
the open access requirement is simply a matter of providing access to the publically funded
research revealed in ETDs. This policy allows for the potential contribution to the scholarly
community while giving sufficient time for the publishing cycle to take place. Creative
works are no different from other fields in the humanities where monographic publishers
require restrictions for online distribution. Open access opponents would want to restrict
access in some cases up to 10 years for CW students, in more extreme cases, forever for any
student. This signals a clear warning sign, a more widespread threat to open access. Clearly,
the present required WVU ETD submission policy with appropriate limited restrictive
options does indeed fall within AWP guidelines.

Another factor often left out of the equation is the fact that theses and dissertations are
preliminary works - a form of grey literature; 90% will require extensive revision to make
them publishable as monographs.6 As a matter of definition, the thesis or dissertation is
considered an examination document, part of the requirement for graduation and part of the


Page 8

institutional record. The thesis or dissertation is not an end in itself; it naturally leads to the
publication of derivative works. Additionally, the thesis or dissertation should not be
considered as the only outcome of one’s abilities, regardless of discipline. It would be absurd
to bank one’s career solely on a single effort; one should have learned to produce many
works from the graduate experience.

From access and archival perspectives, it is an imperative mission of the University Libraries
to be the keepers and distributors of WVU intellectual property output. The standard today is
the electronic format, which will be viewed by future scholars, historians and the public as
part of the digital culture. We cannot go back in time to make exceptions for reasons that are
no longer relevant, nor should we condemn any part of our intellectual property output to
obscurity by excluding certain works from the digital realm. Furthermore, modern
scholarship demands digital formats and online availability as part of the culture of the
research and creative cycle.

Given the weight of the evidence supporting open access ETDs, even in the arts and
humanities, WVU concluded that we would enforce the existing ETD submission policy and
the automatic open access requirement after five years unless sufficient evidence could be
produced that a publishing contract was underway. I am sure this is not the end of this
debate. What we really need is a survey of publisher’s and literary agent’s and publisher’s
attitudes towards ETDs and open access. I suspect that no publisher would be against ETDs
if they were at least initially restricted, as AWP recommends.

If these exciting ETD success stories aren’t compelling enough evidence to our faculty as to
reasons why open access can be beneficial, then I don’t know what will ever open their
minds. Quite the contrary, in my experience, many faculty are already becoming excited by
their student’s successes and want the same level of recognition for themselves; more and
more are expressing interest in contributing their research works to the institutional

What do our clients want?
Graduating students want to see hit counters; they want to know how many downloads their
dissertation received last year / for all time. Faculty and administrators want an immediate
list of how many committees did Professor “X” chair in the last five years. How many ETDs
did his college produce in the past year? How many journal articles did I publish last year
and what were the titles? Can I produce my citation lists on demand? Whose dissertation
was the most popular last year? Which department is the most popular? The list goes on.
Whatever practical discovery tools we can make available to our students, faculty and
administration will make the WVU Electronic Institutional Document Repository (eIDR)
system a truly useful and enterprise-wide solution.

One of our goals is to promote enhanced scholarly communication of faculty publications
through the utilization of the IR. We envision an initial voluntary pilot for submissions in
conjunction with the development of a promotion and tenure (P&T) tracking service,
followed by phased-in required submissions policy, over a one-year period. We have
concluded based on our graduate student experience with ETD program implementation, as
well as supporting evidence from Harnad2 that the best solution is to mandate open access
and deposit in the University IR.


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How do we reach our clients?
During the implementation phase, we are launching a major informational and public
relations campaign geared toward faculty development. Extensive use of branding, logos and
imagery will facilitate the message. For example, we will utilize the ”Easy Button” concept
derived from Staples Inc., to help ease the “fear factor” that faculty may associate with online
distribution in the IR or additional layers of bureaucratic confusion they may anticipate
(Figure 7). Another example we will utilize is the “Survivor” concept, based on the hit CBS
television series (Figure 8). The University mottos “WVU – Where Greatness is Learned”
and “WVU – Success – Expect It” are reminders of our commitment to promote WVU
through our research endeavors (Figures 9, 10). The Open Access Seal, from the Open
Archives Initiative, tells us that by providing unrestricted access it breaks down the barriers,
contributes to, and enhances the research cycle (Figure 11)8. Additionally we are offering
faculty development workshops and distributing literature via mail as well as our new online
Open Access portal to make the information as widely available as possible. We have also
assembled a group of faculty champions in a variety of disciplines, each of whom have a
plethora of electronic works (journal articles and books) that they are eager to deposit in the
IR. We are strategically coordinating the timing of the submission / release of these works to
coincide with the launch of the new DigiTool IR system. Faculty will have local peer
champions to inspire further contributions and show that the University values the research
efforts of its faculty.

The WVU Libraries recently launched it open access and institutional repository campaign to
market incentives and advantages of the program. At the request of faculty, the University
Libraries recently purchased institutional memberships to Public Library of Science (PLOS)
and BioMed Central. This will allow WVU faculty to receive a discount on the up-front
publishing fees, which in turn supports open access to the published works. Berkeley
announced that it would start a two-year pilot, which would pay for all open access publisher
fees for its faculty and then examine if their journal subscription rates had indeed reduced
during the period. In late 2007, the National Institute of Health (NIH) announced it would
require open access to published works funded by NIH within one year of publication. In
January 2008, Harvard University announced that its College of Arts and Science, and more
recently its Law School would embrace the open access IR. This was a very meaningful
move given Harvard’s Ivy League reputation. In early May 2008 launch of the first open
access humanities press was announced. All of this further bolsters the cause. The WVU
Libraries has organized informational seminars, on topics such as the new NIH mandate,
open access and institutional repositories and copyright and intellectual property. This will
be an ongoing series of dialogues with faculty and graduate students. It appears there is a
critical mass forming, a coincidence of events that is sweeping along the open access tide.

Another goal is to enhance the record keeping process through use of the IR as a tool for
P&T reporting and tracking. One prime example is the fact that our faculty often use the
ETD system to document their P&T reports regarding ETD committee activity and citation /
access analysis, which can be derived with a few strings of search query. This project can
provide an exciting online venue that will make use of the IR as a means of deposit, peer
review, citation-and-usage analysis, preservation and access-provision. We can develop
promotion and tenure record keeping tools so that at a glance a faculty member may track his
or her publication record along with dynamically produce hit and citation statistics and
analysis information. The Dublin Core metadata standard with additional institution-specific
data fields will be employed to achieve this. The service will greatly increase administrative


Page 10

efficiency, promote transparency and enhance the visibility of WVU faculty research, and
ultimately enhance the research cycle itself in global fashion.

Intellectual Property – Thinking Outside the Box
Our final goal is to provide the infrastructure for an integrated approach to digital collections
on campus. This could include a variety of collections such as ETDs, Honors Theses
(required open access), faculty publications (pre-prints, post-prints, conference proceedings,
etc.), digital images, audio and video, learning objects, reserved / assigned reading, online
and extended learning applications and institutional / academic records and reports - all under
the IR umbrella. Included in this integrated mix are concerns for digital rights management
and preservation.

Above all, we will advocate open access for all submissions while allowing a proper balance
to protect intellectual property interests. WVU has a personal interest in promoting open
access. In 1996 WVU organized a Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) Peace Tree planting ceremony
at which Chief Jake Swamp of the Mohawk Nation proclaimed the following prophecy:

And by the year 2000, I predict that it’s going to arrive. People suddenly are
going to understand the meaning of what they need to do. This means they are
going to share information freely with one another. People who are now
holding information to themselves […] they’re going to give it all because
other people are looking for that information so that something can be
developed to heal our world.9

It is with this spirit that we will advocate open access to research. However, given the reality
of commercial academic publishing, proprietary interests and the career stakes involved for
faculty, we will allow a limited temporary ”Campus Only” option for situations where
publishers have requested restrictions in order to protect the intellectual property interests of
all parties involved. Presently 83% of our graduate students choose open access for their
ETD Web distribution; we expect similar results with our faculty submissions as well.

Additionally we will promote new and more open forms of collaboration; protection and
sharing such as the “Creative Commons” (CC) model (Figure 12)10. CC defines the
spectrum (Figure 13)5 of possibilities between full copyright — all rights reserved — and the
public domain — no rights reserved (Figure 14)5. CC offers freely available licensing, they
organized the “Open Educational Resources” (Figure 15)5 and other forums, and they have
major supporters such as the Coalition for Networked Information’s ”SPARC” movement
and IBM’s ”Building a New IP Marketplace” (Figure 16)5. Another useful concept to
promote open access and author rights is the Author Addenda; models developed by MIT,
Science Commons and SPARC allow authors attach addenda to publishing contracts which
specify author rights, for example, the right to self archive in an IR11. We will also provide
easy-to-understand information about understanding and negotiating fair use, obtaining
permission for use of third party copyrighted and use of public domain materials through the
distribution of educational resources such as Duke Law Center’s ”Bound by Law” (Figure

On the preservation front, WVU is participating with the U.S. National Archives and Records
Administration (NARA) in preservation recovery project. The Electronic Records Archive
(ERA) program under NARA is partnering with corporate and non-profit organizations such


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