Novel on-line mid infrared detection strategies in capillary electrophoretic systems
Infrared absorption spectra can provide analytically useful information on a large variety of compounds, ranging from small ions to large biological molecules. In fact, all analytes that possess a dipole moment that changes during vibration are infrared-active. The infrared (IR) spectrum can be subdivided into far-, mid- and near- regions. The focus of attention in this thesis is the mid-IR region, in which the fundamental vibrations of most organic compounds are located, thus providing scope for positive structural identification. However, while such near-ubiquitous signals can be very useful for monitoring simple molecules in simple systems, they can be increasingly disadvantageous as the number of analytes and/or the complexity of the sample matrix increases. Thus, hyphenation to a separation system prior to detection is desirable. Paper I appended to this thesis presents (for the first time) the on-line hyphenation between Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, FTIR, and capillary zone electrophoresis, CZE. CZE is a highly efficient separation technique that separates ionic analytes with respect to their charge-to-size ratio. It is most commonly performed in aqueous buffers in fused silica capillaries. Since these capillaries absorb virtually all infrared light an IR-transparent flow cell had to be developed. In further studies (Paper II) the applicability of CZE is expanded to include neutral analytes by the addition of micelles to the buffer, and micellar electrokinetic chromatography, MEKC, was successfully hyphenated to FTIR for the first time. Paper III describes an application of the on-line CZE-FTIR technique in which non-UV-absorbing analytes in a complex matrix were separated, identified and quantified in one run.Measuring aqueous solutions in the mid-IR region is not straightforward since water absorbs intensely in this region, sometimes completely, leaving no transmitted, detectable light. For this reason, quantum cascade lasers are interesting. These lasers represent a new type of mid-IR semiconducting lasers with high output power due to their ingenious design. The laser action lies within one conduction band (intersubband) and can be tailored to emit light in the entire mid-IR region using the same semiconducting material. To investigate their potential to increase the optical path length in aqueous solutions, these lasers were used with an aqueous flow system (Paper IV), and the experience gained in these experiments enabled hyphenation of such lasers to a CZE system (Paper V).
Source Type:Doctoral Dissertation
Keywords:NATURAL SCIENCES; Chemistry; Analytical chemistry; on-line hyphenation; mid infrared detection; capillary electrophoresis; FTIR; quantum cascade laser; aqueous samples
Date of Publication:01/01/2005