New approaches for synthesis and analysis of adducts to N-terminal valine in hemoglobin from isocyanates, aldehydes, methyl vinyl ketone and diepoxybutane
Human exposure to harmful compounds in the environment, from intake via food, occupational exposures or other sources, could have health implications. Exposure to reactive compounds/metabolites can be identified and quantified as hemoglobin (Hb) adducts by mass spectrometry. This thesis aimed at improved synthetic pathways for reference standards, and improved analytical methods for adducts to N-terminal valine in Hb from a range of reactive compounds; isocyanates, aldehydes, methyl vinyl ketone (MVK), and diepoxybutane (DEB).Isocyanates form urea adducts with N-terminal valine by carbamoylation, which are detachable as hydantoins by hydrolysis. A new synthetic pathway for reference standards of adducts from isocyanates and a method for their analysis by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) were developed.Aldehydes form reversible imines (Schiff bases) with N-termini in Hb. After stabilisation by reduction and detachment by isothiocyanates using modified Edman methods, these adducts could be analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) or LC/MS. 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural, its metabolites, and other aldehydes related to exposure via food, were studied with regard to analysis by these methods with synthesised standard references. A considerably improved analytical method for imines was developed. Many of the studied adducts are too short-lived in vivo or in vitro to be used for long-term biomonitoring. However, different approaches for the analysis were evaluated.Through synthesised reference standards, an observed unknown adduct in blood was verified as the adduct from MVK. There exist both natural and anthropogenic sources for MVK.DEB, metabolite of butadiene, forms a cyclic adduct to valine-N. A new approach using hydrazinolysis of protein and enrichment by molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction was tested on synthesised reference DEB-adduct and gave promising results.Synthesised standards were characterized by NMR, LC/MS and GC/MS.
Source Type:Doctoral Dissertation
Keywords:NATURAL SCIENCES; Chemistry; Environmental chemistry; carbamoylation; modified-Edman procedure; 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural; MISPE; biomarkers; miljökemi; Environmental Chemistry
Date of Publication:01/01/2009