Multilayer Structures for Biomaterial Applications : Biomacromolecule-based Coatings
The cellular response to a biomaterial, such as a dental implant, is mainly governed by the surface properties, and can thus be altered by the introduction of a surface coating. In this thesis the buildup of a biomacromolecule-based coating formed by layerby-layer (LbL) deposition of the charged polypeptides poly(L-lysine) (PLL) and poly(L-glutamic acid) (PGA) has been studied. In an attempt to make these coatings bioactive and useful for bone-anchored implants, an amelogenin protein mixture (EMD), has been immobilized in these thin polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) films. Multilayers were also built by LbL deposition of the natural biomacromolecules collagen (Col) and hyaluronic acid (HA). Multilayer films of these two extra-cellular biomacromolecules should be of interest for use as a scaffold for tissue engineering.The buildup of the multilayer films has been followed in situ, using ellipsometry, quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D), and dual polarization interferometry (DPI). The studied PLL/PGA multilayers were found to be highly hydrated, and to exhibit a two-regime buildup behavior, with an initial “slow-growing” regime, and a second “fast-growing” regime with a linear growth in film thickness and more than linear growth in mass. A net diffusion of polypeptides into the film during the buildup led to an increase in density of the films for each layer adsorbed. A change in density was also observed in the Col/HA film, where HA penetrated and diffused into the porous fibrous Col network.The formed PLL/PGA films were further found to be rather stable during drying, and post-buildup changes in temperature and pH, not losing any mass as long as the temperature was not raised too rapidly. The film thickness responded to changes in the ambient media and collapsed reversibly when dried. A swelling/de-swelling behavior of the film was also observed for changes in the temperature and pH.The EMD protein adsorbed to silica surfaces as nanospheres, and could by itself form multilayers. The adsorption of EMD onto PLL/PGA multilayer films increased at lower pH (5.0), and EMD could be immobilized in several layers by alternate deposition of EMD and PGA.
School:Kungliga Tekniska högskolan
Source Type:Doctoral Dissertation
Keywords:NATURAL SCIENCES; Chemistry; Physical chemistry; Surface and colloid chemistry; multilayer; layer-by-layer deposition; physical chemistry; surface chemistry; adsorption; ellipsometry; QCM-D; DPI; protein adsorption; polypeptides; biomaterials; biosurfaces; amelogenin; solid/liquid interface
Date of Publication:01/01/2005