Muddy floods in the Belgian loess belt : problems and solutions
The first part of this thesis aims at defining the conditions triggering muddy floods in the Belgian loess belt. On average, each municipality is confronted with 3.6 muddy floods each year. Annual costs associated with their off-site impacts are estimated at € 16-172 millions for the entire Belgian loess belt. A topographic threshold is derived to predict the source areas of muddy floods. Furthermore, the storms required to produce a flood are, on average, smaller in May and June (25 mm) than between July and September (46 mm). This difference is explained by the variability of soil surface characteristics that determine the runoff potential of cultivated soils (soil cover by crops and residues, soil surface crusting and roughness). Steady state infiltration rates of cropland and grassed areas were characterised in the field using a 0.5 m2-portable rainfall simulator. Overall, grassed areas have a lower infiltration rate (16-23 mm h-1) than croplands (25-52 mm h-1). Muddy floods are mostly observed between May-September because of the coincidence of critical soil surface conditions for runoff generation with the most erosive storms. After an adaptation of its decision rules to the local conditions, the STREAM expert-based model provides satisfactory runoff/erosion predictions at the catchment scale.
The second part of the thesis aims at evaluating the effectiveness of measures to control muddy floods. A modelling case-study showed that peak discharge was reduced by more than 40% by installing a grassed waterway and a dam at the outlet of a 300 ha-catchment. Monitoring the same catchment (2002-2007) demonstrated that the grassed waterway as well as three dams prevented any muddy flood in the downstream village despite the occurrence of several extreme storms (with a maximum return period of 150 years). Peak discharge was reduced by 69%. Specific sediment yield dropped from 3.5 t ha-1 yr-1 to a mean of 0.5 t ha-1 yr-1 after the installation of the control measures, thereby reducing drastically sediment transfer to the alluvial plain. Finally, a methodology is provided to implement grassed waterways and earthen dams in other dry valleys in the Belgian loess belt and comparable environments.
School:Université catholique de Louvain
Source Type:Master's Thesis
Keywords:belgian loess belt muddy floods runoff control catchment hydrological modelling sediment delivery
Date of Publication:04/24/2008