Molecular Cytogenetic Characterization of Supernumerary Marker Chromosomes
Chromosomal rearrangements involving supernumerary marker chromosomes are frequently found in patients with mental retardation, growth defects and malformations. The genetic materials presented in trisomy/tetrasomy are responsible by distinct and unspecific clinical symptoms. The phenotypic variation is related mainly to different mosaicismo degrees, genetic content and chromosomal origin. Thus, the characterization of marker chromosomes is important to determine the prognosis and genetic counseling to the patients and their families. The aim of this study was to analyze supernumerary marker chromosomes using conventional and molecular cytogenetic techniques. Eleven patients were included in this study, all assisted in Medical Genetic Division of Clinical Hospital of School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto USP. They all presented supernumerary marker chromosomes detected by GTG band. The origin and composition were determined using Spectral Karyotype (SKY) and Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) techniques. To ten patients, the origin and composition were determined. Two patients presented inverted duplications of chromosome 15, and their karyotype were defined as 47,XY,+idic(15)(pterq15::q15pter) and 47,XX,+idic(15)(pterq21::q21p11.2), one patient had a derivative chromosome 15, with karyotype 47,XX,+der(15)(pterq21), and two patients, a girl and her father, had two derivatives chromosomes 15, with karyotypes 48,XX,+2der(15)(pterq12) e 48,XY,+2der(15)(pterq12), respectively. Two patients presented derivative chromosomes 9 and their karyotype were defined as 47,XX,+der(9)(pterq21) and 47,XX,+der(9)(pterq32), and one patient had a derivative chromosome 4, with karyotype 47,XX,+der(4)(p16q21)/48,XX,+der(4)(p16q21),+mar. One patient had a translocated marker chromosome, derivative 22, [47,XY,+der(22)t(11;22)(q25:q11.2)] and another patient had a translocated marker chromosome, derivative 15 [47,XY,+der(15)t(15;16)(q13;q13)]. In one case, was not possible to define the origin and composition of the marker chromosome using SKY and FISH techniques. A large phenotypic variation is associated with supernumerary marker chromosomes and many times, the prognosis and genetic counseling is difficult to determine. The molecular cytogenetic techniques are important tools to its characterization, during prenatal diagnosis or to a family with an affected person, helping the genetic mapping of each region to a future correlation karyotype-genotype-phenotype.
Advisor:Lucia Regina Martelli; Elza Tiemi Sakamoto Hojo; Juan Clinton Llerena Júnior; Aparecido Divino da Cruz Peixoto; Luiz Gonzaga Tone; Lucia Regina Martelli
School:Universidade de São Paulo
Source Type:Master's Thesis
Keywords:Correlation Karyotype-Phenotype FISH Marker Chromosomes SKY
Date of Publication:05/21/2008