# Models for compaction and ejection of powder metal parts

Abstract (Summary)

We focus on single punch compaction of powder metals in hollow cylindrical
geometries, and pay special attention to the effects of non-uniform initial density
distribution on final green densities, the effects of density-dependent powder properties
and pressure dependent coefficients of friction on the evolution of the pressure and
density profiles during compaction, and the time variations of the force required for
ejection after the compaction pressure is removed.
In studying the effects of non-uniform initial density distribution, we extend the
work of Richman and Gaboriault [1999] to allow for fill densities that vary with initial
location in the die. The process is modeled using equations of equilibrium in the axial and
radial directions, a constitutive relation that relates the axial pressure to the radial
pressure at any point in the specimen, and a plausible equation of state that relates local
density to the local pressure. Coulomb friction is assumed to act at the interfaces between
the specimen and both the die wall and core rod. In this manner, we determine the axial
and radial variations of the final density, the axial, radial and tangential pressures, and the
shear stress. Of special interest are the inverse problems, in which we find the required
non-uniform initial density distribution that, in principle, will yield no variation in the
final green density.
For incorporating the effect of pressure and density dependent powder properties,
we employ a one-dimensional model that predicts the axial variations of the pressure and
density. In this model, however, we incorporate the density dependence of the radial-toaxial
pressure ratio, as well as the pressure-dependence of the coefficients of friction at
the die wall and core rod. The density-dependence of the pressure ratio is based on the
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experimental measurements of Trassoras [1998], and the pressure dependence of the
friction coefficients is based on the measurements of Sinka [2000] and Solimanjad et. al
[2001]. In the course of this study, we focus attention on a Distalloy AE powder, and
establish the relation between its compressibility and its radial-to-axial pressure ratio.
Finally, we employ linear elasticity theory to model the ejection of the green
compact. In the first phase, we model relaxation of the compact after removal of the
compaction pressure as a misfit of three cylinders, representing the core rod, the compact
and the die wall. The known input is radial pressure distribution at the conclusion of
compaction, and the output is the corresponding radial pressure distributions that prevail
after the compaction pressures are removed. In the second phase, we determine the
variations with punch displacement of the ejection forces required to overcome friction at
the core rod and die wall. The model includes additions to the friction forces due to the
radial expansion (i.e. the Poisson effect) that occurs during ejection. Predictions of the
model compare well to the experimental results of Gethin et.al. [1994].
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Bibliographical Information:

Advisor:

School:Worcester Polytechnic Institute

School Location:USA - Massachusetts

Source Type:Master's Thesis

Keywords:powder metallurgy

ISBN:

Date of Publication: