Metamotivational characteristics of middle-aged women : motives for and barriers to physical activity participation

by Wong, Tsui-fung

Abstract (Summary)
(Uncorrected OCR) Abstract of thesis entitled Metamotivational Characteristics of Middle-aged Women: Motives for and Barriers to Physical Activity Participation Submitted by Wong Tsui Fung for the degree of MSc in Sport Science at The University of Hong Kong in September 2005 The purpose of the present study was to examine the motives for and barriers to physical activity participation in middle-aged women using reversal theory (Apter, 2001). In this theory, there are five pairs of metamotivational states and individuals may prefer to be in one state rather than the other in a specific context such as sport participation (i.e., situational state balances). Participants (N = 360) completed the Revised Motivation for Physical Activity Measure (Wilson, Rodgers, & Fraser, 2002) and Physical Activity for Risk Reduction instrument (Zhu, Timm, & Ainsworth, 2001) to assess their motives for and barriers to physical activity participation, respectively. They were also asked to complete the Metamotivational Style Profile ( Apter, Mallows, & Williams, 1998) for sport and exercise to assess their situational state balances. Differences in motives and barriers were examined in women according to their situational state balances and different levels of physical activity participation (active versus non-active). Demographic characteristics such as age and education were used to predict physical activity participation in women as well. Results indicated that fitness-health factor was the most important reason for physical activity participation while time factor was the most significant barrier. (M)ANOVAs analyses revealed that, in regard to motives, the competence-challenge motive was more significant for arousal seeking participants than arousal avoidance participants. The conformist participants rated fitness-health higher than the negativistic counterparts. Appearance was more important for autic than alloic individuals. The sympathy participants rated social and fitness-health factors significantly higher than the mastery participants. In regard to barriers, for telic-paratelic state balances, significant results were found for participation status with psychosocial and time barriers were more important for non-active participants than active participants. Negativistic participants rated resources or skills and weather or inconvenience barriers significantly higher than conformist participants. Family or friend support was an important barrier for the autic than alloic individuals. The psychosocial and weather or inconvenience barriers were rated significantly higher for the sympathy than mastery participants. Women with lower secondary education level, personal and family income of $5,001-10,000 were significant predictors of physical activity participation. The motives for and barriers to physical activity participation in middle-aged women are in line with reversal theory predictions. A blend of metamotivational characteristics is found to be associated with physical activity participation.
Bibliographical Information:


School:The University of Hong Kong

School Location:China - Hong Kong SAR

Source Type:Master's Thesis

Keywords:physical fitness for middle aged women psychological aspects china hong kong movtivation psychology


Date of Publication:01/01/2005

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