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Measuring Sustainability in the Russian Arctic: An Interdisciplinary Study

by Votrin, Valery, PhD

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The initial set of sustainability indicators for the Russian Arctic
Economic growth

Production and
Science and technology
Material equality
Economic and
administrative instruments
Demographic factors

Standard of life
Human health

Education, public
participation and
indigenous people
State of natural resources

Air and water quality

Depletion of resources
Nuclear issues

Economic indicators
1. GRP per head
2. Rate of renewal of fixed assets
3. Productivity of labour
4. Total investments as percentage of GRP
5. Genuine savings
6. Budgetary sufficiency per head
7. Unemployment rate
8. Energy use per unit of GRP
9. Material intensity of GRP
10. Investments into research and development as share of GRP
11. Gini index
12. Population living below poverty line
13. Share of property owners
14. Share of families in need for housing
15. State financing of environmental protection measures
Social indicators
16. Population growth
17. Life expectancy
18. Average age
19. Human Development Index
20. Recorded crimes
21. Morbidity
22. Cancer incidence
23. Infant mortality
24. Alcohol incidence
25. Percentage of voters in regional elections
26. Participation of indigenous people in local governance process,
including the development of local Agendas 21

Environmental indicators
27. Agricultural land area
28. Organic balance disruption in agricultural lands
29. Fish capture and seafood production
30. Forest area change
31. Allowable annual cut
32. Area of forest fires
33. Newly forested area
34. Protected land area
35. Air emissions
36. Discharge of contaminated wastewater into superficial
37. Environmental protection investments
38. Generation of hazardous waste
39. Recycling of hazardous waste
40. Projected oil exhaustion
41. Number of operating nuclear reactors
42. INES incidents
43. Generation of solid radioactive waste


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Demographic factors
State of natural resources

Arctic-specific indicators
44. Mean annual air temperature
45. Summer ice area
46. Ice thickness
47. Permafrost thaw index
48. Out-migration
49. Reindeer stock
50. Reindeer pasture area
51. Number of polar bears


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