Measurement evaluation and FEM simulation of bridge dynamics
The aim of this thesis is to analyse the effects of train induced vibrations in a steel Langer beam bridge. A case study of a bridge over the river Ljungan in Ånge has been made by analysing measurements and comparing the results with a finite element model in ABAQUS. The critical details of the bridge are the hangers that are connected to the arches and the main beams. A stabilising system has been made in order to reduce the vibrations which would lead to increased life length of the bridge.Initially, the background to this thesis and a description of the studied bridge are presented. An introduction of the theories that has been applied is given and a description of the modelling procedure in ABAQUS is presented.The performed measurements investigated the induced strain and accelerations in the hangers. The natural frequency, the corresponding damping coefficients and the displacement these vibrations leads to has been evaluated. The vibration-induced stresses, which could lead to fatigue, have been evaluated. The measurement was made after the existing stabilising system has been dismantled and this results in that the risk of fatigue is excessive. The results were separated into two parts: train passage and free vibrations. This shows that the free vibrations contribute more and longer life expectancy could be achieved by introducing dampers, to reduce the amplitude of the amplitude of free vibrations.The finite element modelling is divided into four categories: general static analysis, eigenvalue analysis, dynamic analysis and detailed analysis of the turn buckle in the hangers. The deflection of the bridge and the initial stresses due to gravity load were evaluated in the static analysis. The eigenfrequencies were extracted in an eigenvalue analysis, both concerning eigenfrequencies in the hangers as well as global modes of the bridge. The main part of the finite element modelling involves the dynamic simulation of the train passing the bridge. The model shows that the longer hangers vibrate excessively during the train passage because of resonance. An analysis of a model with a stabilising system shows that the vibrations are damped in the direction along the bridge but are instead increased in the perpendicular direction. The results from the model agree with the measured data when dealing with stresses. When comparing the results concerning the displacement of the hangers, accurate filtering must be applied to obtain similar results.
School:Kungliga Tekniska högskolan
Source Type:Master's Thesis
Keywords:dynamic railway finite element analysis vibration measurement frequency fatigue
Date of Publication:04/08/2005